In this study, we have synthesized Graphene/zirconium oxide nanocomposite (Gr@ZrO2-NC) by in-situ polymerization method. The structural, optical, thermal, electrical and photocatalytic properties of the as synthesized Gr@ZrO2-NC were studied. The XRD analysis ensures that zirconium nanoparticles (ZrO2-NPs) have a monoclinic structure. The characterization data confirmed that the ZrO2-NPs were successfully incorporated into the graphene sheets. TGA/DSC results exhibited an enhanced thermal stability of the ZrO2-NPs as compare with graphene owing to the strong interaction between the ZrO2-NPs and graphene. The energy band gap as calculated through the Tauc relation was found to be lower of synthesized Gr@ZrO2-NC. We have applied the synthesized Gr@ZrO2-NC for the efficient photocatalysis of a Rhodamine B (RhB) dye. The photocatalysis results exhibited the promising photo-degradation of the RhB dye under UV light irradiation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, it is encouraging to conclude that Gr@ZrO2-NC has environmental significance.