A PW Ti:Sapphire laser with 30-J energy and 30-fs pulse duration has been developed at GIST and applied to generate x-rays and energetic charged particles. We present the status and plan of developing ultrashort x-ray sources and their applications. We successfully demonstrated x-ray lasers and their applications to high-resolution imaging. In addition, we plan to generate high flux x-ray/gamma-ray sources using the PW laser.© (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.