The use of atomic spectroscopy in the diagnostics of hot plasma, whether terrestrial or astrophysical, has a long and distinguished history. Some examples of past highlights will be given, along with a mention of their impact on contemporary thinking. In terms of more current lines of research on atomic spectroscopy relevant to plasma diagnostics, we will discuss more subtle effects concerning the influence of magnetic and nuclear interactions on atomic structure. For example, there are more effects of magnetic fields on atomic structure than the often though about Zeeman splitting of atomic energy levels. As magnetic fields exist in many astrophysical plasmas and also in Tokomak machines, this line of research may be of great importance to these very important branches of physics. Similarly, effects of nuclear-spin, through the hyperfine interaction, can have dramatic effects on the lifetimes of forbidden transitions. Again, important additions to plasma diagnostics are expected through effects caused by the hyperfine interaction. We will also stress the importance of Electron Beam Ion Traps as excellent laboratory light sources to study such potentially very interesting effects.
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