In this paper we report a study on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a promising non-destructive technique for the identification of the colored glazes, and clay's bodies of Fatimid ceramics ancient artifacts. The scientific examination of ceramics may be helpful in unraveling the history of ancient shards, particularly as the process of its production such as firing condition and temperatures. The analysis of pottery, ceramic bodies and glazed coatings is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece. Revealing the technical skills of ancient potters has been one of the most important issues for gaining a deep insight of bygone culture and also it is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece of art. LIBS measurements were carried out by focusing a Nd-YAG laser at 1064 nm with pulse width of 10 ns and 50 mJ pulse energy on the surface of the sample by a 100-mm focal length lens. The plasma emission was collected by telescopic system and transferred through a fiber to Echelle spectrometer attached to an ICCD camera. The focal spot diameter is found to be in the range of 100-150 μm. which is small enough to consider this technique as a non-destructive technique. LIBS technique clarified that each piece of archaeological objects has its own finger print. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out on these archaeological ceramic body samples to study raw materials such as clays, which allowed the investigation of the crystal structure and showed the changes in its structure through firing process. This provided information on the ceramic characteristic and composition of the ceramic bodies.
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