Advances in stem cell treatment and nanotechnology have been considered as great promising destination for developing new strategies in regenerative medicine applications such as liver and kidney repairing. From previous studies, this review will focus on stem cells that can be divided into Embryonic stem cell, Adult stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell MSC, Induced pluripotent stem cell IPS, and their remarkable abilities to regenerate different damaged tissues, also discussing types of nanoparticles such as silver, gold, quantum dots, silica and iron oxide, and their effects on stem cell viability, differentiation, proliferation and cytotoxicity. The aim of overview is elucidating the mechanisms of internalizing nanoparticles in stem cells via providing analysis of the methods used in exploring the migration routes of stem cells and their reciprocity with microenvironment target in the body and tracking the fate of exogenously transplanted stem cells by using non-invasive techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging MRI, multimodality tracking, optical imaging and nuclear medicine imaging, which designed to follow up stem cell migration. However, MRI is greatly used in stem cell tracking and seems to be the most favorable tool for dynamically observation in vivo cell. Labeling of stem cells with nanoparticles overcame the problems in homing and guiding to desired site to be treated. The current understanding of stem cell migration to the site of injury in vivo and in vitro is almost achieved. This article will explain the distinctive strategies that were mentioned in previous researches such as: 1-enhancing homing of labeled stem cells with nanoparticles into damaged hepatic and renal tissues through inducing specific gene into stem cell, various chemokines and applying external magnetic field. 2-How to improve nanoparticles uptake by using transfection agents or covalently binding an exogenous protein or conjugating a receptor-specific monoclonal antibody. 3-contains stem cell labeling methods as extracellular labeling. Ultimately, our review indicates trails of researchers in nanoparticles utilization in stem cell therapy in both kidney and liver diseases.
© 2019 MTPR. All Rights Reserved