Cairo University

MTPR Journal

 

Two-dimensional system - black phosphorus: electronic, atomic structure and transport properties of bP(100) single crystals

2019-04-22
Ionov A.M., Zagitova A.A., , Bozhko S.I., Kulakov V.I.
Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432, Moscow
Region, Chernogolovka, st. Academ. Osipyana

Vol./Issue: 19 , id: 253

Recently, greater attention has been paid to systems with reduced dimensionality. Two-dimensional materials, quantum threads, quantum dots, as well as hybrid structures, attract the attention of scientists for the reason that their properties often differ from the properties of a bulk material. Among twodimensional materials, graphene, dichalcogenides of transition metals, and monoatomic layers of Si, Ge, Sn have also been extensively studied. As a promising two-dimensional material, black phosphorus was also proposed, the allotropic modification of phosphorus most stable under normal conditions. Black phosphorus is a layered material in which atomic layers are held by weak van der Waals forces. The electronic, atomic structure and transport properties of black phosphorus (bP) single crystals prepared by high-pressure methods and a gas-transport reaction were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM). After exposure of the clean surface at atmospheric conditions, the features in the XPS spectra corresponding to the oxidized form of phosphorus were observed. The appearance of oxidized areas on the surface was also detected using AFM. The atomic resolution of the surface of a single crystal was obtained by the STM method. As a result of low-temperature transport measurements, impurity activation energies were determined, negative magnetoresistance along the Y direction was detected and discussed.