There is a widespread concern about neurological disorders. Unfortunately, most of the currently used treatment strategies for the handling of many of these disorders remain unsuccessful. In fact, drug delivery from the systemic circulation to the central nervous system (CNS) is restricted due to the presence of many extracellular and intracellular barriers. One promising solution to bypass these obstacles is by applying the drug delivery systems in the nanoscale dimensions. These nanosized drug delivery systems have many advantages over other conventional drug delivery methods such as: specific targeting, high drug loading capacity and in many cases, reduced toxicity. Grounded on this fact, nanotechnology could cause a revolution in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. In this context, I will start with the drawbacks of the currently used conventional drug delivery systems for the CNS and the challenges they affront to make their actions. Then, I will discuss the role of nanotechnology in enhancing the delivery of drugs to the CNS. I will present some examples of the effective use of nanoparticles in the handling of many brain disorders, especially: Alzheimer's disease, brain tumors and others. At the end, I will speak about the future use of nanotechnology in the advanced treatment of neurological diseases.
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