The electronic, atomic structure and transport properties of black phosphorus (bP) single crystals prepared by high-pressure methods and a gas-transport reaction were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM). After exposure of the clean surface under atmospheric conditions, the features in the XPS spectra corresponding to the oxidized form of phosphorus were observed. The appearance of oxidized areas on the surface was also detected using AFM. The atomic resolution of the surface of a single crystal was obtained by the STM method. As a result of low-temperature transport measurements, impurity activation energies were determined, and negative magnetoresistance along the Y direction was detected.