Cairo University

MTPR Journal


On the solar stimuli that initiate Makkah Al-Mukaramah, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah and Jeddah flash floods

2014-12-19 & doi:
Shahinaz Yousef, Yasser h. O. Algafari, Ramy Mawad

Severe solar events manifested as highly energetic X-Ray events accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and proton flares caused flash floods in Makkah Al-Mukaramah, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah and Jeddah. In the case of the 20 January 2005 CME that initiated severe flash on the 22 of January. it is shown that the CME lowered the pressure in the polar region and extended the low-pressure regime to Saudi Arabia passing by the Mediterranean. Such passage accelerated evaporation and caused Cumulonimbus clouds to form and discharge flash floods over Makkah Al-Mukaramah. On the other hand, solar forcing due coronal holes have a different technique in initiating flash floods. The November 25, 2009 and the 13-15 January 2011 Jeddah flash floods are attributed to prompt events due to fast solar streams emanated from two coronal holes that arrived the Earth on 24 November 2009 and 13 January 2011. We present evidences that those streams penetrated the Earth's magnetosphere and hit the troposphere at the western part of the Red Sea, dissipated their energy at 925mb geopotential height and left two hot spots. It follows that the air in the hot spots expanded and developed spots of low-pressure air that spread over the Red Sea to its eastern coast. Accelerated evaporation due to reduced pressure caused quick formation of Cumulonimbus clouds that caused flash floods over Makkah Al-Mukaramah and Jeddah.