doi: https://doi.org/Prof. of Solid State Physics, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University firstname.lastname@example.org
Coronary artery disease remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. It is projected to be the leading cause of death in the developing world. Despite the success of current medical and surgical management of ischemic heart disease, a growing number of patients have diffuse obstructive coronary artery disease that is not amenable to coronary-artery bypass grafting or catheter-based interventions it is estimated that patients with ungraftable coronary artery disease account for approximately 5% of patients who undergo coronary angiography. This problem has stimulated interest in developing alternative therapeutic approaches. On a concept was based on the model of the reptilian heart, in which the left ventricle is directly perfused from endothelium-lined channels that radiate out from the left ventricular cavity. Mirhoseini and associates, advanced the concept by using laser energy to create the transmural channels. Subsequent clinical trials demonstrated that transmyocardial revascularization significantly improved angina in patients who were not candidates for conventional therapies such as bypass surgery, balloon angioplasty, or medical management.