Cairo University

MTPR Journal

 

Angular Distribution and Transverse Momenta of Projectile Fragments of Oxygen Nucleus Collided with Emulsion at 3.7A GeV

U+1F5132019-10-15 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)58-61
A. Abdelsalam, M. S. El-Nagdy, A. M. Abdalla, A. Saber

Transverse-momentum and angular distributions of all residual charges due to fragmentations for 16O projectile on emulsion at 3.7A GeV are recorded and compared with that obtained for 12C, 22Ne, 24Mg and 28Si at the same momentum. The experimental parameters that indicate the mechanism responsible for projectile fragmentation are discussed. The effect of target size on fragmentation process for both 16O and 24Mg projectiles are studied. The results, in the given range of masses and energy show that there is unified mechanism responsible for projectile fragmentation.

HTML PDF

 

Two-dimensional system - black phosphorus: electronic, atomic structure and transport properties of bP(100) single crystals

U+1F5132019-10-01 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)50-57
Ionov A. M., Zagitova A. A., Bozhko S. I., Kulakov V. I., Zverev V. N.

The electronic, atomic structure and transport properties of black phosphorus (bP) single crystals prepared by high-pressure methods and a gas-transport reaction were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM). After exposure of the clean surface under atmospheric conditions, the features in the XPS spectra corresponding to the oxidized form of phosphorus were observed. The appearance of oxidized areas on the surface was also detected using AFM. The atomic resolution of the surface of a single crystal was obtained by the STM method. As a result of low-temperature transport measurements, impurity activation energies were determined, and negative magnetoresistance along the Y direction was detected.

HTML PDF

 

Design and Evaluation of Flat Solar Concentrator

U+1F5132019-09-29 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)62-68
Lotfia El Nadi, Maha K. Omar, Mohammed Fikry

Flat solar concentrators are designed to focus solar radiation in a linear shape. The concentrator is designed to be the primary step in a sequence of steps that eventually generate solar laser. The focused beam from the concentrator output is used to optically pump a lasing medium (iodine medium) which is compressed in a one meter long and 8 mm diameter quartz tube. The design used here is formed of two flat mirrors with the availability of changing the angel between them. The two mirrors are displaced to create a gap between the two mirrors at the line of their intersection. This research was dedicated to focus down the highest intensity of solar radiation so that the optimal operating conditions of the concentrator are achieved. Multiple parameters were changed, and their effects were simulated theoretically. The highest solar photon concentration was established at the bottom line connecting the two mirrors. In this respect, a movable semiconductor spectrometer was applied to study both the focused radiation spectrum and intensity.

HTML PDF

 

Thermodynamic properties of hot quark gluon plasma gas

U+1F5132019-09-15 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)39-44
M. H. M. Soleiman, S. S. Abdel-Aziz, and A. I. Imsaeri

– In the present study a method is developed to get and explore thermal properties of hot infinite nuclear matter in the phase of quark gluon plasma-gas. Two models (modified from MIT model to fit experimental data in nuclei collisions) are used as case studies. The models were introduced in the form of parametric polytropic equations of state for quark gluon plasma gas. The volumetric specific heat capacity at constant volume c_v, the adiabatic speed of sound c_s, and isentropic compressibility κ_s of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) have been calculated as continuous functions of total energy density. It is found that the speed of sound increases as the energy content of QGP increases, while c_v and κ_s shows physical behavior like dilute gases.

HTML PDF

 

On the performance of a Flat Plate Collector

U+1F5132019-09-15 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)31-38
M. K. El-Adawi, S. A. Shalaby, S. S. Mustafa, A. M. Abdul-Aziz

Flat plate collector with thin absorber is studied. Heat balance equation is solved to estimate the temperature of the absorber and its variation along the local day time. The same equation is used to determine the temperature of the working fluid. A published expression [20] to predict with good fitting the hourly global solar irradiance is considered as a source function for the incident solar energy. Three absorbers of different materials: Copper, Aluminum and Mica are considered. The water is considered as a working fluid. Two cooling conditions at the absorber front surface are considered. Factors affecting the efficiency are revealed.

HTML PDF

 

Some Physical Properties of SBR/NBR Rubber Blends-Loaded with Nano-Sized Black Fillers

U+1F5132019-09-01 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)1-10
M. Hafez, A. S. Doma, A.Y. Zanaty, A. S. Abdel-Rahman, S.A. Khairy, H. H. Hassan

Different blends of SBR/NBR compatibilized by butadiene rubber (BR) were prepared according to the well-known standard methods. The modified blends of unfilled SBR/NBR was characterized on the basis of the effect of blend ratio by curing parameters, mechanical characteristics, abrasion resistance, compression set and swelling properties. It was found that SBR/NBR blends showed comparatively better mechanical properties compared to each rubber individually. Curing parameters e.g. low torque (ML) and high one (MH) were increased, while a reduction in the curing and scorch times were decreased with increasing SBR ratio in the blend. Results revealed that, the increase of SBR content results in an enhancement of tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (Eb). The effect of blend ratio showed a peak value for (TS) & (Eb) at 50SBR/50NBR. For that, two types of carbon blacks, N220 and N774 were incorporated with the optimum blend ratio (50SBR/50NBR) by different concentrations. The effect of carbon blacks on the mechanical characteristics, hardness, abrasion resistance, compression test and even the swelling test in benzene have been discussed according to the recent current theories.

HTML PDF

 

Thermodynamic properties of hot quark gluon plasma gas

U+1F5132019-05-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)45-49
M. H. M. Soleiman, S. S. Abdel-Aziz, A. Abdelfattah Omar

Identification of mass numbers concerning the nuclei ignite the atmospheric extensive air showers (EAS) is vital in the studies of Ultra High Energetic Cosmic Rays Interactions (UHECRI). The present study introduces a simple technique in processing of the shower data at the detector level (1400 m over sea-level) to identify the nucleus that starts the cascade of the EAS. CORSIKA 7.6900, which is the EAS-Monte Carlo generator is used to generate detailed data at detection level 1400 m over sea-level and energy ~ 10^6GeV. The data are analyzed and the energy spectrum is obtained for the generated EAS. The EAS spectra for light nuclei (H and He), medium nuclei (Mg), and Heavy nuclei (Ti, Cr, Fe) are obtained, totally and with photons are subtracted. It is found that, the spectral slope of the tail of the spectra with photons subtracted depend on the primary nuclei’s mass-number.

HTML PDF

 

Production three Neutralinos from electron-positron annihilation via H0 and Z0 propagators

U+1F513 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)11-16
M. M. Ahmed

Production three neutralinos as the lightest supersymmetric particles (LSP) from the process in the framework of minimal Supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and calculated the cross-sections for this interaction. We consider Produce χ ̃_i^0 (P_2 )+χ ̃_j^0 (P_4 )+χ ̃_l^0 (P_5 ) by one group of Feynman diagram through and propagators (from 1- 48 situations). (Where i ,j = 1, 2, 3, 4, and l=1). The cross sections are calculated according to a carefully selected set of Supersymmetric parameters, and the values of the cross sections ( ) pb are taken as a function of the incident center of mass energy ( ) Gev. Consider the neutralino to be the candidates for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) or cold dark matter (CDM). The values of cross-sections are taken at ( ) ranges from 300 to 1400 GeV. The all different possible situations are graphed and tabulated. The best cross section value ( ) is 2.5x10-10 pb when the neutralinos masses are at m_(χ ̃_i^0 (P_2 ) )=600Gev, m_(χ ̃_j^0 (P_4 ) )=600Gev, m_(χ ̃_l^0 (P_5 ) )=300Gev.

HTML PDF

 

Production of Neutralino and Tow Higss Bosons from electron-positron annihilation via H0 and Z0 propagators

U+1F513 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)17-24
M. M. Ahmed, Asmaa A. A., and Zainab A. H.

Production three neutralinos as the lightest supersymmetric particles (LSP) from the process in the framework of minimal Supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and calculated the cross-sections for this interaction. We consider Produce χ ̃_i^0 (P_2 )+χ ̃_j^0 (P_4 )+χ ̃_l^0 (P_5 ) by one group of Feynman diagram through and propagators (from 1- 48 situations). (Where i ,j = 1, 2, 3, 4, and l=1). The cross sections are calculated according to a carefully selected set of Supersymmetric parameters, and the values of the cross sections ( ) pb are taken as a function of the incident center of mass energy ( ) Gev. Consider the neutralino to be the candidates for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) or cold dark matter (CDM). The values of cross-sections are taken at ( ) ranges from 300 to 1400 GeV. The all different possible situations are graphed and tabulated. The best cross section value ( ) is 2.5x10-10 pb when the neutralinos masses are at m_(χ ̃_i^0 (P_2 ) )=600Gev, m_(χ ̃_j^0 (P_4 ) )=600Gev, m_(χ ̃_l^0 (P_5 ) )=300Gev.

HTML PDF

 

Powerful explosion of the ultraviolet light

U+1F513 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)25-30
Kholmurad Khasanov

Schlieren Photography and Laser visualization helped us to detect in the atmosphere a field of constant ultraviolet explosions of light having power from hundred microwatt to one watt. Super-compression of ultraviolet in this field generates powerful explosions of light. The atmospheric ultraviolet explosions of light have the following characteristics: high frequency, wave super-compressibility and lacking power. The dynamic emitter of our design can transform lacking power atmospheric ultraviolet explosions into powerful explosions of the light from ten watt to thousand watt and more. The air, under the pressure of two-six bar comes in the dynamic emitter flows out and creates the supersonic jet. The interaction of the jet with low heat supply and the lacking power atmospheric ultraviolet explosions leads to focusing and super-compressing of the light wave, which calls powerful explosions of the ultraviolet light. These explosions carry out a nuclear decay, synthesize elements and porous nano materials. Recently, the Russian satellite Lomonosov, equipped with an ultraviolet telescope, recorded the powerful explosions of the light at an altitude of tens kilometers from the Earth. Russian scientists believe that explosions of the light in the atmosphere is a new physical phenomenon that modern science cannot explain yet. We assume that the powerful explosions of the light in the laboratory, the mechanism of which we present, as well as those fixed by the Russian satellite, are of the same physical nature.

HTML PDF

 

Nanotechnology Enables Hot Gold Nanorods to Kill Cancer Cells and to Stop Alive Sick Cells from Migrating to other Places in the Body

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. A. El-Sayed

Cancer kills many people after several years of suffering and after using a great deal of different unsuccessful treatments, like surgery, chemical and/or radiation treatments. The field of Nanotechnology showed us how different materials acquire so many different properties when their size is reduced to the nanometer scale. Gold nanoparticles having rod shape of nanometer size and a length: width ratio of 3:1 can absorb near infrared light (to which our body is transparent) and convert it into heat. If solution containing gold nanorods is injected into a cancer lump and exposed to near infrared light, the hot solution (resulting from the gold nanorods upon absorbing the near infra-red light) melts the cancer cells leading to their death. This was demonstrated by our group in the photo-thermal destruction and destroying cancer cells in solution and in cancer lumps in small and large animals.1-5 Normally, some of the cancer cells that do not die are able to migrate to other parts of the body away from the location of their initial formation spot until they are located in a sensitive part of the body that leads to the cancer patient death. Thus, most of the cancer patients die from cancer after the cancer cells migrate by a process called metastasis to a more sensitive part of the body. Very recently, however, we discovered 5-6 that in our photo-thermal treatment, while treating cancer cells in the first cancer location with hot gold nano-rods, the cancer cell legs and arms and the motion proteins are photo-thermally destroyed. This makes it difficult for the cancer cells to migrate to a new more important functional locations in the body. This treatment is thus effective in stopping cancer cell migration through the patient body and increases the success rate of the patient’s complete recovery.

References 1.El-Sayed, I. H.; Huang, X.; El-Sayed, M. A., Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles. Cancer letters 2006,239 (1), 129-135.
2.Dickerson, E. B.; Dreaden, E. C.; Huang, X.; El-Sayed, I. H.; Chu, H.; Pushpanketh, S.; McDonald, J. F.; El-Sayed, M. A., Gold nanorod assisted near-infrared plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) of squamous cell carcinoma in mice. Cancer letters 2008,269 (1), 57-66.
3.Ali, M. R. K.; Rahman, M. A.; Wu, Y.; Han, T.; Peng, X.; Mackey, M. A.; Wang, D.; Shin, H. J.; Chen, Z. G.; Xiao, H.; Wu, R.; Tang, Y.; Shin, D. M.; El-Sayed, M. A., Efficacy, long-term toxicity, and mechanistic studies of gold nanorods photothermal therapy of cancer in xenograft mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2017.
4.Ali, M. R. K.; Ibrahim, I. M.; Ali, H. R.; Selim, S. A.; El-Sayed, M. A., Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis. International Journal of Nanomedicine 2016,11, 4849-4863.
5.Ali, M. R. K.; Wu, Y.; Tang, Y.; Xiao, H.; Chen, K.; Han, T.; Fang, N.; Wu, R.; El-Sayed, M. A., Targeting cancer cell integrins using gold nanorods in photothermal therapy inhibits migration through affecting cytoskeletal proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2017,114 (28), E5655-E5663.
6.Ali, M. R. K.; Wu, Y.; Ghosh, D.; Do, B. H.; Chen, K.; Dawson, M. R.; Fang, N.; Sulchek, T. A.; El- Sayed, M. A., Nuclear Membrane-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion. ACS Nano 2017. 1936-0851.

HTML

 

Two-dimensional system - black phosphorus: electronic, atomic structure and transport properties of bP(100) single crystals

U+1F5122019-04-22
Ionov A.M., Zagitova A.A., , Bozhko S.I., Kulakov V.I.

Recently, greater attention has been paid to systems with reduced dimensionality. Two-dimensional materials, quantum threads, quantum dots, as well as hybrid structures, attract the attention of scientists for the reason that their properties often differ from the properties of a bulk material. Among twodimensional materials, graphene, dichalcogenides of transition metals, and monoatomic layers of Si, Ge, Sn have also been extensively studied. As a promising two-dimensional material, black phosphorus was also proposed, the allotropic modification of phosphorus most stable under normal conditions. Black phosphorus is a layered material in which atomic layers are held by weak van der Waals forces. The electronic, atomic structure and transport properties of black phosphorus (bP) single crystals prepared by high-pressure methods and a gas-transport reaction were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM). After exposure of the clean surface at atmospheric conditions, the features in the XPS spectra corresponding to the oxidized form of phosphorus were observed. The appearance of oxidized areas on the surface was also detected using AFM. The atomic resolution of the surface of a single crystal was obtained by the STM method. As a result of low-temperature transport measurements, impurity activation energies were determined, negative magnetoresistance along the Y direction was detected and discussed.

HTML

 

The phenomenon of a powerful explosion of light

U+1F5122019-04-22
Kholmurad Khasanov

In laboratory conditions, we detected a quantum high-frequency super-compressive field of space. Recently, the Russian satellite named after Mikhail Lomonosov, launched in 2016 and integrated with the Kanopus-B spacecraft, equipped with an ultraviolet telescope, recorded an explosion of high-power light above tens of kilometers from Earth [1]. Director of the Nuclear Research Institute of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov interviewed, that detected explosion of light in the atmosphere is a new physical element. Surprisingly, the explosion occurred in a cloud free Earth’ssky. According to the scientists, discovered explosion of light in the atmosphere is a new physical phenomenon. This phenomenon cannot be explained within the framework of existing physical laws [2]. Registration of the quantum field space was carried out thanks to a dynamic emitter.A dynamic emitter of a special design created in which a supersonic air jet with a spiral-spherical structure formed when the gas jet expires in the flooded space. Dynamic emitter’s design published in the journals as "Fluid Dynamics" [3], "American Journal of Modern Physics" [4] and "Physics Letters A" [5], in which you can find a detailed description of the structure, as well as the formation of a spiral structure, super-compressed supersonic jets. The quantum field of space recorded by optical methods using a Schlieren Photography method [6] and laser high-speed imaging [7]. As an example, we can demonstrate images of the explosion of light in the atmosphere during the outflow of a supersonic flow and its interaction with the detected quantum field of space where the explosion of light occurs in different spectral ranges. (Fig. 1,2,3). The explosion of light in the atmosphere stimulated by quantum of high-frequency super-compressive field of space and the explosion of light in the atmosphere converge to the same physical nature having a single mechanism.

References
[1] Mail Online. (2019). Russian satellite detect mysterious 'explosions of light'. [online] Available at: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6692297/What- Russia-spotted-Earths-atmosphere-Scientists-say-satellite-saw-explosions-light.html [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].
[2] Atmosphere, R., reading, F., news, M. and read, M. (2019). Russian satellite spots mysterious 'light explosions' in Earth's atmosphere | Computing. [online] http://www.computing.co.uk. Available at: https://www.computing.co.uk/ctg/news/3070927/russian-satellite-spots-mysteriouslight- explosions-in-earths-atmosphere [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].
[3] Khasanov, Kh., 2012. Emission of High Energy during Super-Compressibility of Supersonic Jets. Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, 2(4), p.172.
[4] KhasanovKh. Spatial super-compression of the continuous media inhighfrequency fields // American Journal of Modern Physics. — 2015. — Vol. 4. — P. 281– 286.
[5] Khasanov, Kh., 2012. Visualization of super-compressibility in supersonic spiraltwisted jets. Physics Letters A, 376(5), pp.748-752.
[6] Ian.org. (2019). HOWTO: Schlieren Photography. [online] Available at: http://www.ian.org/Schlieren/HowTo.html [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].
[7] John P. Crimaldi, Daniel W. Knight (2005), A Laser-Based Flow Visualization System for Fluid Mechanics Instruction.

HTML

 

ULTRA INTENSE LASERS FORM THE SUN IN THE LABORATORY

U+1F5122019-04-22
Lotfia El Nadi

Since their starting steps in 1985, Ultra Intense Lasers (UIL) have been developed to generate femto -second pulses with typical high performance parameters: Peak Power up to~ 1000 TW = PW - Pulse Duration < 20 fs - Pulse Energy~ 2 Joules-Rep. Rate ~ 10 Hz- λ~ 800 nm When such photons are properly focused on a target, creation of simultaneous exotic conditions within an extremely short time are developed, which have never been achieved before. Non linear optical processes are dominating and material is totally ionized providing large charge densities of around > 10 24 cm -3 and energetic electrons of 10 3 to 10 6 ev

FORMING THE SUN IN THE LABORATORY Non equilibrium dynamics in a violently driven systems lead to Non- Maxwelian particle distribution and Gigantic magnitudes simulating the conditions expected for BLACK HOLES where: Magnetic fields of the order 109 gauss, Electric fields of 1010V/ cm, Pressures of the order 10 9 bars and e - Temperatures of the order of 10 8 K are formed.

Ideal conditions to establish an UIL LABORATORY.

HTML

 

GENERATION OF A HIGH POWER TUNABLE ULTRAFAST WHITE LIGHT LASER FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

U+1F5122019-04-22
Walid Tawfik

In this work, the generation of widely tunable ultrafast high-power laser system with pulse duration of a few-cycle fs pulses using a nonlinear laser interaction in neon-filled hollow-core fiber is demonstrated. The seed source is a 15-fs mode-locked Ti: sapphire of 400 mW and 75 MHz at 800 nm working in TEM00 mode. In this system, the amplification was done via a 1 KHz CPA regenerative-amplifier which produced 32 fs pulses of 2.5 mJ at 800 nm. Then output pulses were highly-compressed by self-phase modulation in an inert gas as a nonlinear medium through a one-meter hollow optical fiber. The dispersion compensation of these pulses was done via a pair of chirped mirrors. The observed pulses have controlled durations from almost 4 fs to <10 fs with power 0.1 TW and repetition rate 1 KHz as shown in fig.1. The characterization of ultrafast pulses in the regime of few-cycle pulses is considered using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) [1]. These pulses can be tuned from about 12 to 94 THz by varying the chirping of input pulses at different pressure of the inert gas. The observed results can give an opportunity to control the progression of strongelectric- field interactions on the ultrafast time scale and can be applied to regenerate attosecond pulses in the deep ultraviolet range. The observed results may give an opportunity to controlling the progression of strong-electric-field interactions on the ultrafast time scale and are crucial to regenerate attosecond x-ray pulses. Furthermore, the generated ultrafast laser pluses can be utilized in many applications in medicine and biology. Obvious areas of utilization include time-resolved imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy. Such investigations can be applied in cases involving tissue examination in the cardiovascular sector as well as applications within the field of malignant diseases [2], [3]. Fig. The Temporal Profile of output

References:
[1] Tawfik, Walid. "Precise measurement of ultrafast laser pulses using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction." Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials 24.04 (2015): 1550040.
[2] S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg: Time-resolved transillumination for medical diagnostics, Optics Letters 15, 1179 (1990).
[3] S. Svanberg: Some applications of ultrashort laser pulses in biology and medicine, Meas. Sci. Technology 12, 1777 (2001).

HTML

 

On the performance of a flat plate collector

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. K. El-adawi, S. A. Shalaby, S. S. Mostafa, A. M. Abdelaziz

Flat plate collector with thin absorber is studied. Heat balance equation is solved to estimate the temperature of the absorber and its variation along the local day time. The same equation is used to determine the temperature of the working fluid. A published expression to predict with good fitting the hourly global solar irradiance is considered as a source function for the incident solar energy. Three absorbers of different materials: Copper, Aluminium and Mica are considered. The water is considered as a working fluid. Two cooling conditions at the absorber front surface are considered. Factors affecting the efficiency are revealed.

HTML

 

Studying the effect of Plasmon coupling and their SERS performance for Ag @Au and Au@Ag core- shell free ligand prepared by laser ablation

U+1F5122019-04-22
G.Omar1,Ola. S. Ahmed2, H Imam 3, Mohamed M.Y. Elzayat4, Ahmed S. G. Khalil 4, Radwan G. Abd Ellah1

In this work we synthesis bimetallic silver–gold nanoparticles (NPs) with different structures. Namely, (AuCore-AgShell) and (AgCore-AuShell) nanoparticles were synthesized in double distilled water by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid (PLAL)without any stabilizers or surfactant. Although, laser ablation during surfactant is possible.The morphological and structural properties of the resulting bimetallic nanoparticles were thoroughly analyzed by TEM, DLS, and UV–Vis spectrophotometry. The plasmon band of the two core–shell NPs ranged from approximately 400 to 520nm. For AuCore-AgShell the plasmon band of core–shell NPs can be shifted to lower wavelengths (blue shift) by depositing a silver shell with increasing ablation time of the silver target. On the other side for AgCore-AuShell shifted to higher wavelengths (red shift) by depositing a gold shell with increasing ablation time of the gold target. Furthermore, UV–Visible optical absorption spectroscopy indicated the deviation of the surface plasmon resonance peaks with the Au and Ag shell by variation of the laser pulse ablation time, which affected the shell thickness.The HRTEM images clearly confirm the spherical colloidal stable with two different structures of the two core shell nanoparticles CS- NPs. The effect of cellular uptake of Au, Ag, (AuCore-AgShell) and (AgCore-AuShell) nanoparticles on cell adhesion/viability, cytotoxicity and morphology of Liver cancer cells culture (HePG2) have been investigated.

HTML

 

High Power Lasers for Determiningthe Level of Heavy metals in Egyptian fuel combustion power plants

U+1F5122019-04-22
Ahmed Asaad I. Khalil1, and A.I. Hafez2

We report on the spectroscopic analysis studies of the heavy metals content in differentEgyptian fuel combustion power plant slagsby employing high power lasers induced spectroscopic analytical technique (LISAT), energy dispersive X-ray analysisand inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) systems.The valuable metals were taken from the steam boiler bottom as solid waste residuefor industrial recycling recovered. The investigated composition analysis byemploying the calibration of thelaser spectroscopic techniquesis established on the registered collection spectra of the plasma flare generated by high power lasers. We examined the impact of altered experimental parameters to enhancethe sensitivity of our system. Moreover, the LISAToutcome accuracy in evaluating the heavy metals concentration in solid waste residues was validated using ICP/OES system. The predicted LISAT results werefound goodmatching with the ICP/OES results. The influence of parameters like liquid/solid, mixing time,digestion temperature,concentrations of acid and alkali on heavy metals recovery was also studied. The proposed protocols elucidated that the brilliant profit of LISAT for identifying of valuable metalspresent in solid waste residue sample surface and for examining the quality and purity of recovering metal manufactures.

HTML

 

Identification Of Nuclear Mass Range Of Primary Event From The Observation Of Shower In Ultra High Energetic Cosmic Rays At Energy ~ 106gev

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. H. M. Soleiman, S. S. Abdel-Aziz, A. Abdelfattah Omar

HTML

 

Dynamic of molecules in ultrathin C60 film

U+1F5122019-04-22
Bozhko S.I.

The motion of single atoms or molecules plays an important role in nanoscale engineering at the single atomic or molecular scale. Effect of molecule center mass displacement on conductivity of C60 based junction has been previously reported [1].Understanding of molecular motion is crucial to further progress in molecule-based nano-electronic devices.The symmetry and deviations from a spherical shape of the C60 molecule generate the rotational degrees of freedom which often determine physical and structural properties of compounds, C60 based clusters and crystal. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is one of the most promising techniques for imaging of prototype molecular devices and testing their properties. We employed STM to reveal switching of individual C60 between different orientations within a single molecular layer grown on the WO2/W (110)surface(Fig. 1a-e). Switching of the molecule between orientations resulted in a telegraph noise in tunneling current (Fig. 1d) or in Z position of STM probe. Statistics of switching has been used to determine energy gap and potential barrier height between two adjacent orientations of the molecule. Rotational transitions in single molecular layer of C60 were also studied. STM experiments were performedin temperature range 80K-320K.Rotational first order phase transition at TC=260Khas been established [2].Above that temperature molecules continuously rotate around their centres of mass whereas below TC the rotational degree of freedom is suppressed and C60 molecules undergo thermally activated switches between closely positionedin energy orientations. The rate of jumps rapidly decreases with decreasing temperature and at 220 K the molecules stay in each state for longer than the time of a possible experiment. Therefore a kinetic glassy transition can be identified at 220 K.The glassy transition and nonexponential relaxation in solid C60 are due to the freezing of weakly correlated orientations of nearest-neighbor molecules.The large number of different molecular orientations observed in the film results in an averaging-out of the interaction potentials and should cause Arrhenius-like relaxation processes. However, STM experiments reveal correlations in the nanomotion of the C60 molecules that suggest arguments in favor of a constrain-dynamic scenario.The observation of a glassy transition at 220 K reveals a nonexponential relaxation in the C60 monolayer. The Kauzmann temperature was estimated to be 45 K.Link of dynamics of individual molecules to the rotational transitions in the overall film discussed in a frame of mean field theory.


[1]Hongkun Park, et.al., Nanomechanical oscillationsin a single-C60 transistor,Nature, 407, 57, 2000; N.Neel, et.al. Two-level conductance fluctuations of a single-molecule junction, Nano letters, 2011, 11, 3593
[2] Sergey I. Bozhko et.al. Rotational transitions in a C60monolayer on the WO2/W(110) surface, Phys. Rev. B. 84,195412, (2011)

HTML

 

Green and Novel Structure for Wastewater Treatment: Spectroscopic and Modeling Approaches

U+1F5122019-04-22
Medhat Ibrahim

Inorganic pollutants such as heavy metals find their way to the aquatic environment as a result of manmade activities. As a result of inadequate treatments such pollutants could be accumulated, which is in turn one of the well-known reasons for hazardous effects as they easily interact with the biological chain. New trends in controlling heavy metals are needed especially those of green origin.Among green methods for treatment of inorganic pollutants, phytoremediation is recommended owing to its green origin. Simply, it could be defined as using the plant in such a limited way as it could return the metals back to the environment.Natural polymerswith dried water hyacinth are prepared in the form of microspheres for the remediationofheavy metals from wastewater. A patenthas beengranted in which microspheresare prepared from chitosan/water hyacinth. As chitosan is expensive, it was further replaced by sodium alginate, and thensolar drying system in addition to solar power is replacing electricity to minimize cost and save energy. The produced microsphereshave then becomecost effective and could remove inorganic pollutantsfrom wastewater without returningit back to the environment. The present talk will summarize the spectroscopic and modeling approaches in our group to prepare water hyacinth/natural polymers microspheres for the remediation of heavy metals.

HTML

 

Angular Distribution and Transverse Momenta of Projectile Fragments of Oxygen Nucleus Collided With Emulsion at 3.7A GeV

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. S. El-Nagdy1, A. Abdelsalam2, A. M. Abdalla3 , B. M. Badawy4, and A. Saber3

Transverse-momentum distributions of the residual charges due fragmentation of 16O projectile nucleus with emulsion at 3.7A GeV are investigated. The experimental parameters that study the mechanism responsible for projectile fragmentation are discussed. The angular distributions of all possible charges due to projectile fragmentations for 16O nucleus are recorded and compared that obtained for 12C, 22Ne, 24Mg and 28Si at the same collision momentum. The effects of target size on fragmentation process for both 16O and 24Mg projectiles are studied. The experimental results show that there is unified mechanism of projectile fragmentation in this range of masses and energy.

HTML

 

TOWARDS A GREEN WORLD: THE POWER OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

U+1F5122019-04-22
Heba Mohamed Fahmy

The safety of the environment leads to better quality of life to all the creatures. Nanotechnology is now intervening in many applications such as: industrial, medical, agricultural fields and no one can imagine the current world without the different applications of nanotechnology which greatly enhanced our life style. Nanotechnological products, procedures and applications are needed to contribute significantly to environmental and climate protection by saving raw materials, energy and water as well as by cutting greenhouse gases and hazardous wastes. Using nanomaterials therefore promises certain environmental benefits and sustainability effects. Even so, nanotechnology currently plays a rather subordinate role in environmental security, whether it be in research or in practical applications. In this talk, I will start my speech by pointing out what did we expected from this technology and whether our expectations come true or not. I will give special attention for talking about the dark sides of nanotechnology and how nanotechnology can lead to negative impact on the environment. I will end my talk by pointing out the benefits of nanotechnology to the environment with giving specific examples for that, such as: obtaining new and cheap new energy sources, recycling some hazardous materials and returning them into beneficial products. I believe that greener environment equals better future and easier life.

HTML

 

Simulation of Fusion Reaction of Ultra High Power Laser Accelerated Protons with Boron Nuclei

U+1F5122019-04-22
Lotfia El Nadi 1,2 , Magdy M. Omar 1, Dalia Osman 1,3

In the process of the interaction of Ultra Intense Laser UIL beams with Plastic targets, it was proved to efficiently bunch accelerated Hydrogen ions [1, 2]. The efficient Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) mechanism [3, 4, 5, 6] for laserbased ion acceleration, could explain the production of bunches of solid state density through the hole-boring mode [7]. Allowing such dense bunches of Hydrogen ions i.e. protons to impinge on a second thicker Borated Polyethylene target would easily result in fusion of the UIL Laser accelerated protons with the B11 nuclei, resulting in highly excited fused carbon nuclei. Such fused species would soon disintegrate by evaporating light particles or by fission into relatively lighter fragments. In this scenario the first target could well be polyethylene foil of thickness less than 500 μm and would be considered the source of the accelerated Hydrogen ions or protons. -The second target would be expected to contain C12 compound nuclei by p1 + B11 ----. C 12* fusion as well as lighter nuclei due to fission of C 12* nuclei. In the following we propose to estimate the possibility of producing important non emitting neutron nuclei such as B isotopes and or Alpha particles in the second Borated polyethylene target. Simulation of fusion, followed by particles evaporation, is elaborated applying Mont Carlo code PACE-4 [8]. In this Contest a planned experiment will be briefly introduced, where the production of such nuclei and the experiment to measure their properties will be elaborated.

HTML

 

Fabrication and Optical characterization of Ultrathin Graphene Oxide thin Films Using an Integrated technique between Layer-by-Layer Assembled and Spin Coating methods

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. M. Saadeldin1*, Albert Guirguis1,2

Although the large-scale graphene oxide material production via bulky routes, graphene oxide (GO)still represents less than half of the global market. The primary reason behind this trend is the limitation of reconducting a homogeneous thin-film from scattered nanosheets that are generated with robust methods to match the industrial facilities. In this paper, a large -scale graphene oxide (GO) layers were synthesized by a simple facile technique through merging approach between the layerby- layer assembled (LBL) and spin coating (S) techniques. The growth conditions were also correlated with optical performance for three different GO accumulations, which the thin-film with 8 layer (GO8) showed adequate optical performance corresponding toa successful building layer fromGO flakes with minor defects. The crystalline, electronic, and morphologystructure of prepared GO films are confirmed via XRD, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and AFM respectively. Finally, these as-produced GO thin-films can increase the utility of GO usage in several applications.

HTML

 

PRODUCTION NEUTRALINO AND TWO HIGGS BOSONS FROM ELECTRON-POSITRON ANNIHELATION VIA H0 AND Z 0 PROPAGATORS

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. M. Ahmed, and Zainab. A.H.

The cross-sections σ (pb), in electron (e-) - positron (e+) annihelation, are calculated over range of center of mass energy S (Gev) for the process: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ~ ( ) 5 0 4 0 2 0 1 3 e P e P H P H P P i j         .There are two groups of Feynman diagrams are taken into consideration depending on the types of the propagators, Group (a) Production of 0 i H , 0j H and ~0   , when and H0 are the propagators, and Group (b) Production of 0 i H , 0j H and ~0   , when H0 and are the propagators, where i, j  1,2,3, and  1,2,3,4 . There are(288) different possible situations. The cross sections for this process are calculated carefully according to a selected set of parameters. then graphed and tabulated, The production cross-sections values mechanisms can be detected as: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 0 2 0 2 4 0 1 3 e P e P H P P H P H P i j        . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 0 2 0 2 4 0 1 3 e P e P Z P P H P H P i j        . At S interval (1200 - 1600) Gev, the best value of σ is (28x10-2) Pb in group (a) . when each masses of Higss bosons ( 125 / 2 0 , m Gev c Hi j  ) and the Neutralino mass ( 700 / 2. ~0 m  Gev c   )

HTML

 

Correlation between Structural and Electrical Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride in the Pure State and with some Additives at Different Temperatures

U+1F5122019-04-22
G. M. Nasr, L. M. Salah*, S. E. H. El-Massry

Synthetic (SrTiO₃) has a very large dielectric constant at room temperature and low electric field. Aiming to increase the dielectric constant of PVDF, a different amount of SrTiO3 are added to it. A correlation between structural changes and the physical properties of these composites was elucidated. The effect of doping with SrTiO3 on electrical conduction in PVDF was undertaken. The effect of SrTiO3 doping in PVDF on the dc electrical properties as well as the electrical conduction mechanisms was studied . The dielectric properties of PVDF as a function of SrTiO3 doping and both temperature and applied frequency was elucidated . Finally, the structural changes in PVDF matrix owing to SrTiO3 doping via IR and XRD spectroscopy was presented .

HTML

 

Temperature Effect on the Performance of Diode Pumped Nd- Yag Solid State Laser System

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. Atta Khedr, E.Salam, G. E. Khalil, A. M. Abou-Elmagd

We had used a compact Nd:YAG solid state laser in our laser system which consists of: pumping diode laser, collimating lens, dichroic mirror, Nd:YAG crystal, saturable absorber, Q-switching, KTP crystal, infrared filter , output coupler mirror, heater, power meter and spectrometer. Measurements were carried out for power and intensity of the emitted laser beam together with the input power. The spectrum and the power of the diode excitation source has been examined before carrying out the experiment. Temperature effect was examined using a small oven for heating the laser Nd: YAG laser compact system using high accuracy temperature controller. We measured the output laser power and spectrum profile of laser wavelength at532 nm and 536.1 nm the second harmonic of 1064nm of Nd: YAG laser crystal at different temperatures 30-65centegrate. We obtained relation between temperature and laser power which reveals that we had an optimum output laser power at 35 and 40 degree centigrade .The optimum spectrum was found at the same pervious degrees. We obtained the laser efficiency at different temperatures.

HTML

 

Fast Diagnoses of Cancer by Isotopic Variations Detection in Blood Samples Using Laser spectroscopic Technique

U+1F5122019-04-22
H. Imam 1, Ola. S. Ahmed2, Abdel-Rahman Zekri2, M. Hafaz1, Elsh. Omra1, G.Omar3

The early detection of cancer is of prime importance with respect to treatment and patient survival. Biopsy techniques that are currently employed for such diagnosis are invasive and time consuming.Isotopic analysis is essential in medicine, chemistry, materials science, radiochemistry, archeology, and nuclear non-proliferation.Isotopic data provide answers to fundamental questions related to research and development in these disciplines as well as providing important insight into more applied fields.A new method of performing optical isotopic analysis of condensed samples in ambient air and at ambient pressure will be developed: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS). This technique is currently a subject of great interest in spectroscopy and is being considered for the design of a field portable unit for nuclear safeguard inspection, because it allows a high level of portability and versatility while identifying the elements and materials of interest. The new method can determine not only chemical composition but also isotopic ratios of elements in the sample. Isotopic measurements are enabled by significantly larger isotopic shifts found in molecular spectra relative to atomic spectra. No sample preparation or pre-treatment is required. Detection of the isotopes of copper, zinc and sulfur will be discussed to illustrate the isotopes ratio of these elements as marker for cancer type. It is possible to build a model that enables the accurate determination of the isotopic ratio under conditions for elements of interest would not be achievable without the use of ultra-high resolution spectrometer. The performance obtained with such a LIBS sensor configuration demonstrates the possibility of integrating all of the required components in a small portable handheld system. That will lead to make the whole investigation of cancer type and grades using a new developed technique.

HTML

 

Comparative study of the effect of fs, ps, ns Lasers on the gold, CdS thin films and Mo, TiUsing laser produced plasma (LPP) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD)

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. Atta Khedr1*, Naser Fathi1, Dalia Abdrabou2,5, Atef S. Gadalla1, T. Atwee3, H. M. Abd – Elmonem2, Y. Badr1, Ahmed. A. Khalil 1, H. Sharqawy2,Th. El – Sherbini2, Ali Hussien5 and M. Elnahass4

Pulsed laser deposition thin films (PLD) is used for preparing gold, and Cadmium Sulphid (CdS) thin films using different laser sources. Three types of lasers with different wavelengths and pulse duration time including thefemtosecond picosecond, and nanosecond (fs, ps, ns) are used for carrying these study. Nd-Yag laser 1064 nm and its double frequency pulses at 532 nm of 8 ns pulse duration time, ps laser pulse at 800 nm wavelength and 200 ps pulse duration time, fs laser pulse at 800 nm wavelength and 40 fs duration time are used. Nd – Yag Laser of 1064 nm is used for preparing CdS thin films under high vacuum 10-6 mbar. These thin films which are deposited by these three types of laser pulses are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Xray Spectroscopy (EDX) and XRD. The results are showed formation of gold particles for all the three laser pulses, but it was noticed gold thin films in case of femtosecond laser pulse are formed in more symmetric manner than in case of using the ps and ns laser pulses. The effect of increasing of the fs laser power has increased the thin film density. Photoconductivity, XRD of CdS thin films of different thickness and temperature are measured. laser produced plasma using Nd-yag Laser interaction with Titanium Ti and hollow cathode of Molybdenum (Mo) under applied electric field and without are carried out.Electric probe and faraday cup collecting charge are used in plasma diagnostics. The electron Temperature, Electron density, ion velocity distribution function of multi charged ions, ion temperature, ion density are obtained. Laser produced plasma spectroscopy (LPPS) of CdS, Titanium and MO has been measured which gave the high accuracy of the plasma parameters obtained.

HTML

 

Correlation between Structural and Electrical Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride in the Pure State and with some Additives at Different Temperatures

U+1F5122019-04-21
G. M. Nasr, L. M. Salah*, S. E. H. El-Massry 1, Y.H. Elbashar3 and A.S. Abdel-Rahman1,3*

Internal friction is a very important mechanical property of matter which can be determined by many techniques, such as the pulse excitation technique and the torsional pendulum. In this paper we used the pulse excitation technique as it is non-contact, easy used and not affecting the sample, reliable, low cost, and accurate and suiting a wide variety of rubbery materials and elastomers. The samples chosen for this work is made of butadiene acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), which are loaded by different phr of N774 nanocarbon. The measured sample is prepared in form of 200 mm long string, having a homogenous circular cross-section of 3 mm diameter. A mechanical pulse is produced and delivered to the fixed end sample by mean of a punch from a small solenoid motor plunger. To generate a shadowgraph for the vibrating sample on a silicone photodiode, a laser beam is used. A storage oscilloscope is used to capture the natural resonance amplitude decay profile of the test sample from the obtained electric signal. The internal friction is obtained by mathematical analysis of the acquired data.

HTML

 

Identification of Nuclear Mass Range of Primary Event From The Observation Of Shower In Ultra High Energetic Cosmic Rays At Energy ~ 106gev

U+1F5122019-04-21
M. H. M. Soleiman, S. S. Abdel-Aziz, A. Abdelfattah Omar A.

Identification of mass numbers concerning the nuclei beginning the ignition of the atmospheric extensive air showers (EAS) is vital in the studies of Ultra High Cosmic Rays Interactions (UHCRI). The present study introduces a simple technique in processing the shower data at the height of detector level (1400 m over sea-level) to identify the nucleus starting the cascade of the shower. CORSIKA 7.6400, which is the EAS-generator is used to generate EAS data at detection level of 1400 m over sea-level and incidence energy ~ 106GeV. The data are analyzed and the energy spectrum is obtained for the generated EAS. The EAS spectra for light nuclei (1H and 4He), medium nuclei (24Mg), and Heavy nuclei (48Ti, 52Cr, Fe) are obtained, totally and with photons are subtracted. It is found that, the spectral slopes of the tail of the spectra with photons subtracted depend on the primary nuclei’s mass-number. Keywords: Ultra High Cosmic Rays Interactions (UHCRI), primary event nuclei, CORSIKA, extensive air showers (EAS), spectral tail.

HTML

 

Graphenegrowth on Cu foil andNi/Cu surfaceat low temperatures by pulsed laser deposition

U+1F5122019-04-21
Mohamed A. Hafez1*, Iftitan M. Azzouz1, Abd Elhamid M. Abd Elhamid1, Abdelnaser M. Aboulfotouh2

Graphene has attracted much of interest due to its remarkablephysical, optical, and electronic properties. The outstanding features of graphene such as high mechanical strength, quantum electronic transport, and tunable bandgap have multiple applications in industry and electronic devices. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD)is a versatile technique and got considerable impulsion because of its applications in the synthesis of high quality single crystalline materials of technological significance. In this work,study of graphene growth on commercial Cu foil and Ni/Cu surface substrates under high vacuum were carried out by Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm and laser energy of50 mJ. The base pressure during the deposition was ~1×10-5 Torr.Effects of growth conditions; temperature, surface structure, and cooling rate on the ability to fabricate graphene layers were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD).PLD growth of graphene layers indicated that surface mediated growth have a catalytic role despite of the presence of Cu(200) and Cu(111) facets. Raman spectra indicate that synthesis graphene layers rely on the surface quality of substrate together with the proper cooling profile coupled with graphene growth temperature. Surface mediated growth of graphene on Cu foil substrate revealed to have favorable catalytic effect. The results show dependent of the grown graphene on how PLD introduced Ni into Cu substrate, which was relied on the laser energy and substrate heating procedure. This work suggests that PLD growth can be integrated with other deposition systems to have the selection to fabricate graphene for the required applications. Details of few layers graphene growth successfully at low temperatures are given and discussed.

HTML

 

Studying the difference between solar and astronomical twilight using image analysis

U+1F5122019-04-21
Ramy Mawad 1, Magda Farghaly 2, A. H. Hassan 2 , Walid Abdel-Sattat 3, Hussien M. Farid 3, Shahinaz Yousef 3, M. Amin 3

Studying the types of observed twilights according to image analysis taken by Canon EOS 20D camera were carried out during 13-16 Jan 2016 in Aswan Egypt (desert land). It is found that there are two types of twilights. A) Astronomical twilight called also Pseudo-Dawn (non-thread bright): caused by Zodiacal light or the solar radiation reflection from the asteroid belt, and interplanetary matter when the solar depression is approximately in the range 19.5°-16.5° (18° in average). It is not appeared in all days of our study, it appeared only in days 14 and 15 when solar depression angles were -17.54° and -18.88° respectively. B) Solar twilight (morning white thread): produced from the solar radiation directly at the depression angle of the Sun is nearby 15° before sunrise and 16° after sunset. Solar twilight occurred when the Sun's depression angle at -15.56° -15.56°, 14.93°, -15.38°, -14.53° in the current studying period. Starting time of the solar twilight is slightly different from naked eye, about ~1°. It is found that the astronomical twilight starts brighter and vertically wider than solar twilight. Astronomical twilight starts at altitude 8° with vertical thickness ~30°, while solar twilight starts at altitude ~3° with thickness about 1-2° only. The solar twilight of the morning can be divided into three stages: a) Darkness (Fajr) occurs at a depression angle of the Sun nearby change to about (16° - 12°). b) Semi-darkness stage (Ghalas): in-between stage, occurs at a depression angle nearby change to about (12° - 5°). Twilight has a grey color. c) Lightning stage (Isfar): pre-rising, occurs at a depression angle nearby change to about (5°-0°) with reddish twilight color. Because of the difference in mesospheric thickness, temperature and composition at sunrise and sunset occurrence, twilight color starts white for sunrise twilight and ends red for sunset twilight.

HTML

 

Crystal Structure, Characterization and Physical Properties of some 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites of The Formula [NH3-(CH2)n-NH3]MCl4, M = Co, Mn, n = 4, 5, 9

U+1F5122019-04-21
S. K. Abdel-Aal1*, A. S. Abdel-Rahman1, G. Faigel2, K. Kamaras2, A. Ionov3

Great attention has been devoted to the preparation and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHs). These advanced materials can provide low cost materials for self assembly quantum well applications, fuel, solar cells, batteries, electronic and optoelectronic applications. Diammonium halide perovskite hybrids [NH3(CH2)nNH3]MClxBr4-x ; x= 0, 2, 4; M= Co, Mn, Cu allow mixing of organic and inorganic components in one molecule which possesses a property that may not exist in either of the parent components. Possibilities could elaborate hybrid materials in terms of processing new chemical and physical properties according to the application needed. Single crystals were prepared by slow evaporation. The complete structure information as well as lattice parameters for Co hybrid n= 4-5 are provided, and n = 5 - 6 for Mn hybrid. Differential thermal analysis DSC shows reversible solid-solid phase transition for both the Co and Mn hybrids. Permittivity studies confirm the phase transition. FTIR at different temperature are discussed. Electronic structure and chemical bonding in Co, Mn OIHs were studied by X-ray (XPS) photoemission spectroscopy. All elements of Co and Mn organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites were found in XPS spectra and can be related to the peaks of N1s, C1s, Co2p, Mn2p and Cl2p. Wide peak of C1s spectra was related to the chemically unequivalent C atoms in the compounds. The spectrum of the N1s level with binding energies of 401.2 eV was assigned to NH3-group. The analysis of Co2p states in Co OIHs compounds shows the divalent state of Co with a typical satellite structure.

Acknowledgment ASRT-Hungarian Academy of science funding.

HTML

 

EFFECT OF COLD PLASMA ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DPPC LIPOSOMES

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M Fahmy*, Asmaa A Hassan, Ghada F Abdelfatah, Salma Y Mohamed, Mohamed H Gaber

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has many promising applications in biomedical engineering, dentistry and oncology. This study investigates the effect of CAP on 1,2- dipalmitoyl-Sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes prepared by the thin film hydration method which are used as a model for lipid bilayer membrane. DPPC liposomes were exposed to cold plasma 2, 3 and 5 minutes. The effects of cold plasma on DPPC characterization parameters such as size, charge, FTIR absorption spectrum, UV-visible spectrum and phase transition temperatures were investigated. Exposure of DPPC liposomes to CAP led to an increment in the size and stability of liposomes by increasing the exposure time. 2-min CAP exposure was found to increase liposomal size through particle aggregation, whereas, 3 and 5 min exposure increases the liposome size via adsorption of negative species emerging from CAP on their surfaces. As depicted from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, the electrostatic interaction between the CAP species and phospholipids acyl groups of DPPC resulted in the change of DPPC conformation. The hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules arranged more closer, especially with increasing the exposure time. Thus, it can be concluded that CAP alters the physical and chemical characteristics of DPPC liposomes.

HTML

 

The potentiation of the antidepressant effect of Thymoquinone by loading it on Chitosan nanoparticles coated with polysorbate 80

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M Fahmy1, Yasser A Khardrawy2, Taiseer M Abd-El Daim1, Amena S Elfeky1, Amera A Abd Rabo1, Amira B Mustafa1, Islam T Mostafa1

The present study aims to evaluate the antidepressant effect of different formulations of Thymoquinone; free Thymoquinone (TQ), Thymoquinone-loaded Chitosan nanoparticles (TQ-TPP-Cs NPs) and Thymoquinone-loaded Chitosan nanoparticles coated with polysorbate 80 (TQ-TPP-Cs NPs-PSb80) that have been prepared to avoid the low bioavailability of TQ. Rats were randomly divided into control rats, rat model of depression induced by reserpine, rat model treated with TQ, rat model treated with TQ-TPP-Cs NPs and rat model treated with TQTPP- Cs NPs-PSb80. The prepared formulationswere characterized for size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release before their use in treatment. The transmission electron microscope analysisconfirmed that TQTPP- Cs NPs and TQ-TPP-Cs NPs-PSb80 were nearly spherical, having sizes of 44±1.9 and 74.66±5.6, respectively. The mean zeta potential for TQ-TPP-Cs NPs and TQ-TPP-Cs NPs-PSb80 was 30.9±3.02 mV and 3.89±2.23 mV, respectively. The TQ encapsulation efficiencies for TQ-TPP-Cs NPs and TQ-TPP-Cs NPs-PSb80 were 75.67% ± 17.03and 85.61% ± 1.02, respectively, while the loading capacities were 14.093% ± 4.61 and 16.26% ± 1.2 for TQ-TPP-Cs NPs and TQTPP- Cs NPs-PSb80, respectively. The release of TQ from TQ-TPP-Cs NPs and TQTPP- Cs NPs-PSb80 was rapid during the first 4 hrs and was followed by a sharp decrease during the next 72 hrs. Reserpine induced a decrease in motor activity and swimming time and increased immobility time as indicated from the open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST). In addition, a significant decrease in the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) was recorded in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum of reserpine-treated rats. The results indicate that TQ-TPP-Cs NPs loaded with polysorbate 80 was more efficient in ameliorating the behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by reserpine than TQ and TQ-TPP-Cs NPs. The present data suggest that the antidepressant efficacy of TQ could be enhanced by loading it on Chitosan nanoparticles coated with polysorbate 80.

HTML

 

EVALUATION OF THE POTENCY OF CHITOSAN-PALM POLLEN MIXTURE ON INCREASING THE FRUITS SHELF TIME

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M. Fahmy1, Amena Sayed 1, Soha Salah2, Fatma Mohamed3, Aya Allah Ashraf4, ALaa Ali5

The balance between preserving food as economic solution and keeping nutrient con-tent is a real challenge. However The unique criteria of Chitosan made it a promising solution, that’s why we intent to preserve mandarin orange and banana fruit from oxidative damage, microbial growth and, microbial toxins for relatively long period by coating fruits with a coat using low and high molecular weight Chitosan-antimicrobial and biodegradable material with different concentrations along with the extract in one hand and with palm pollen grains extract in another one and comparing the influence of those additives on contaminated and uncontaminated fruits to investigate whether they will be protected from fast deterioration at room temperature or not. We hope to be able to ex-tend the shelf life of the fruit, keeping its nutritive value and protecting it from fungal contamination. The positive achievement out of this investigation may be generalized further to include different fruits and vegetables preserved in their very nature form.

HTML

 

DIELECTRIC SPECTROSCOPY SIGNATURE FOR CANCER DIAGNOSIS

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy 1, Amany Mohamed Hamad 1, Fatma Al-zahraa Sayed Mohammed 1, Esraa Samy Abu Serea 2, Youssef Salah Mohamed 3, Amany Bahaa El-Din Mustafa 4, Ayat Mosstafa Saadeldin 5, Maha Amir Mohammed 1

The effective clinical management of cancer is entirely dependent on the detection at a suitable early time as well as on the proper diagnosis. The main aim of this review is to survey the applications of dielectric spectroscopy in the clinical cancer diagnosis and distinguishing between normal and tumor tissues. This review focuses on recognition of the biophysical properties of normal and malignant tissues and also of biophysical changes elicited by cancers comprising (breast, liver, thyroid gland, lung, skin, prostate, and bladder) tumors. These biophysical changes are often produced because of the difference in tissue composition, blood flow, and architecture between normal and malignant cells. From the literature, it has been observed that dielectric spectroscopy method can be applied before, during or after tumor surgery; and most of the results are confirmed by conventional analysis such as histopathology. Moreover, by dielectric spectroscopy technique, dielectric parameters, especially conductivity and permittivity were suggested to be biomarkers for discrimination cancerous patients of the mentioned cancer types. It could be concluded that dielectric spectroscopy rapidly provides the biophysical status of normal tissues and cancerous ones and thus can be applied effectively for the early diagnosis and detection of cancers.

HTML

 

ELECTROPORATION AS A NOVEL METHOD FOR FLUOXETINE LOADING

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy 1, Aya Allah ashrafshafie2, Abeer Ashraf Abdelmokhtar1 , Mohamed Hamdy Mahmoud1, Yousra Mohamed Yousef2, Abdelaziz Habib Mohamed1, Asmaa Mamdouh Ahmed2, Naglaa Abd El-Monaem Taha3, Fatma El-Zahra Mahmoud Hassan2, Fayrouz Ali Muhammad4 , Esraa Mohammed Abd Al-Mohsen 5.

For the treatment of diseases, not only the drug industry is important, but how to target the drug to the affected area with minimal damage and the highest concentration is what scientists are interested in. This project aims to apply a more effective and less expensive method of delivery of fluoxetine (FLX) which is used as a treatment for depression but has terrible side effects on the human body. The method depends on applying the technique of electroporation on FLXloaded liposome. The project is divided into two phases, the first is to enter FLX into non-doped DPPC-liposome using electroporation, and the second phase is the use of electroporation for the entrance of FLX into DPPC liposome doped with silver nanoparticles. The present study extends also to compare the results of the two phases and find out which method and what kind of liposome is better to transport the drug with higher encapsulation efficiency.

HTML

 

Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Thymoquinone-Encapsulated Dppc Liposome for the Inhibition of Prostate and Laryngeal Cancer Cells

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy, Nada Reda Abd Elkader, Taiseer Mohamed Abd Eldaim, Ayaat Mahmoud Mosleh, Omnia Eid Ali, Latifa Helmy Ahmed Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

HTML

 

BIODISTRIBUTION AND TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES IN THE RAT BRAIN

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M Fahmy*,Omnia A Ali, Asmaa A Hassan, Faten A Mahmoud, Fatma M Abdelrahman, MariamMAbu El-fotouh

The increase in the usage of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in the industrial and medical fields has raised concerns about their possible adverse effects. The present study aims to investigate the potential adverse effects of CuNPs on the brain of adult male Wistar rats through the estimation of some oxidative stress parameters and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity.CuNPs were prepared and characterized using different techniques: Dynamic Light Scattering, XRay Diffraction, Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy, in addition to Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Rats were divided into two groups: CuNPs-treated group (IV injected with 15 mg/kg ˷ 13 nm CuNPs for 2 successive days) and a control group (injected with saline). Rats of the 2 groups were decapitated simultaneously after 48 hours of the last injection. The Cu content in different brain areas was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Moreover, the effect of CuNPs on brain edema was evaluated.The behavior of rats in an open-field was also examined 24 hours post the last injection.Significant increases of Cu content in the cortex, cerebellum, striatum, thalamus and hippocampus was found. Moreover, CuNPs lead to the induction of oxidative stress condition in the thalamus, hypothamaus and medulla. In addition, CuNPs induced significant increases in AChE activity in the medulla, hippocampus, striatum besides midbrain. CuNPs-injected rats showed alsodecreased exploratory behaviour.The results obtained in the present study point to the importance of toxicity assessments in evaluating the efficiency of CuNPs for the safe implementation in different applications.

HTML

 

Grape seed derivatives in cancer treatment

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy Abdelbaky1, Mostafa Mohamed Ahmed Sayed2, Fatma Mohamed Fouad3, Alaa Ali4, Soha salah abdelhamied5, latifa Helmy Ahmed6, Ayat Mosstafa Saadeldin7

In the last decades, there is an increasing concern to new and safe medications to treat cancer which is becoming a widespread problem all over the world. Grape seed extracts proved to have a role in the management of cancer, they enhance the effect of chemo adjuvant treatment or prevent progression. Previous work demonstrated that Grape seed derivatives likeprocyandine B23,3"-di-o-gallate showed a great effect in the treatment of prostate cancer. Resveratrol, which is considered, asis a type of polyphenols had proved therapeutic potential against colon cancer, in addition, Alphalinolenic acid showed promising effects in the treatment of skin, breast and esophageal cancers. Moreover, polyphenols demonstrated a success in the treatment of different types of cancer and their effects was dose and time dependent. The present work reviewsa number of previous studies that used grape seed or one of its derivatives in the management of cancer.

HTML

 

HEAVY METALS TOXICITY ON CHILDREN AND INFANTS

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy 1*,Esraa Samy Abu Serea 2, Loay Hassan Ahmed 3, Hager Hassanin Elmorsy4, Eman Mohamed Salama5 , Aya Allah ashraf shafie2,Fatima Ayman Alhafiry 6 , Naglaa Abdel Monaem Taha 7

Heavy metals are environmental elements with toxic properties for humans and wildlife. Children are more vulnerable to heavy metal toxicity, the exposure can be occur in nature through inhalation or food intake. There are many risks due to this exposure to the children causing diseases depends on the route of exposure and the kind of metal. The aim of this review is to show the effect of heavy metals exposure to children in different cases of exposure and several heavy metals such as Cd, Ni, Cr, As, Se, and Pb and to determine the diseases can happen to infants and newborn and how the heavy metal can transfer from mother to fetus through placenta during pregnancy. Autism is an example of the dangerous diseases result from the highly exposure of heavy metals. Other side effects of heavy metal exposure are birth weight and dermal diseases. the main purpose of this review is to show the connection between the heavy metal and the toxic effect on children. By using a cross sectional studies to show how exposure of heavy metal to mothers plays a very important role on children health, as mother milk can be source of heavy metals to infants as example. This review collected many different studies in many areas with different metals on the last ten years approximately to enable us found all prospective of this important issues.

HTML

 

In-Vitro Evaluation of Copper Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity in Normal and Cancer Lung Cell Lines

U+1F5122019-04-21
Nashwa Moatez Ebrahim 1, Heba Mohamed Fahmy 2, Mohamed Hassanin Gaber 3

In-vitro evaluation of copper nanoparticles cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in normal and cancer lung cell lines Abstract Nanotoxicology is a major field study that reveals the importance and hazard effects of nanomaterials on the living cells and tissues. In vitro studies on biological cell lines allow more control and observation along the experiment time. In the present study, Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were prepared by chemical reduction method. Then, characterization was done by different physical techniques such as: Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). As the respiration of freshly pure air is a vital process, lung cell lines have been chosen as the scope of this study. Evaluation of the toxicity of Cu NPs was performed on 2 types of cells: the human diploid lung fibroblast normal cell lines (WI-38 cells) and the human epithelial lung carcinoma cell (A549 cells). In order to assess the toxicity of the prepared Cu NPs, the two cell types were exposed to 10 mg/ml serial diluted Cu NPs for 72 hrs. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of Cu NPs for both cell types was separately determined and used to examine the cell genotoxicity (Comet assay) concurrently with some oxidative stress parameters such as nitric oxide (NO), glutathione reduced (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Physical characterization of Cu NPs revealed that there were spherical in shape with an average size of 19.94 ± 3.80 nm. Cu NPs suppressed the proliferation and viability of normal and carcinoma lung cells. Treatment of both cell types with their IC50’s of Cu NPs resulted in DNA damage besides the generation of reactive oxygen species xi (ROS) and consequently a generation of a state of oxidative stress. Overall, it can be concluded that the IC50's of the prepared Cu NPs were cytotoxic and genotoxic to both normal and cancerous lung cells. Keywords: Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs), human lung normal cell lines (WI- 38 cells), human lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 cells), toxicity, oxidative stress, comet assay, DNA.

HTML

 

Thin Film Applications in Wound Healing

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy1; Nashwa MoatezEbrahim٢; AlaaWesal Abd Ellatef٣; Mariam Hisham Mohamed ٤; Fayrouz Ali el Baioumy٥; Asmaa Mamdouh Ahmed٦; Marwa Ahmed Abd Elazim٧; Alaa Mohammed Alaam٨; Mohamed Hamdy Mahmoud9

Wound healing becomes more efficient and easier by the aid of thin films. Gelatin production of thin films used for wound dressing is due to its high curative effect, antibacterial and the easy way to form it as a thin film. Many studies were made on bacterial cultures to uncover the role of the gelatin thin films in the wound healing treatment process. Silk/gelatin (S/G) film displays excellent mechanical properties which is essential for wound healing applications which cannot be obtained from sole gelatin film.Collagen is mostly found in fibrous tissues. It is important in tissue engineering and cosmetic medicine. Collagen films which are prepared from Brazilian propolis or chitosan have a good effect in improving wound healing process when it works as wound dressing for dermal burn healing. One of the gel for wound healing purposes is Aloe vera gel which enhances the degree of collagen cross-linking and the synthesis of collagen after topical and systemic administration in wounds created in a diabetic rat model. Aloe vera-Ca-alginate films shows intrinsic properties of wound healing process like the flexibility and high transparency.Chitosan is a cationic natural polymer and a natural polysaccharide that has been used for years in wound healing because of its ability to stimulate healing process, being nontoxic and has biodegradable properties.The properties of chitosan can be developed by incorporating it with substances which have properties that can increase the efficiency of chitosan. These substances are like thyme oil, ECM from porcine omentum and also by using castor oil as matrix material in the production of biocompatible and biodegradable non composite film containing chitosan modified ZnO nanoparticle, curcumin, as gelatin, tourmaline, polyvinyl alcohol/sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, Poly (vinyl alcohol), Methoxy-poly (ethylene glycol) etcand with others to improve efficiency of chitosan film in wound healing process.After the preparation of the previously mentioned thin films, some tests are carried on to show how these thin films affect wound healing process like characterization of films by FTIR, SEM. Also, for each thin film type, physical properties: like: water vapor permeability, oxygen transmission rate, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity are studied.In vivo and Vitro experiments demonstrated that these films showed antibacterial activity, decrease in wound size, low swelling behavior, nontoxicity and tissue repairing etc.

HTML

 

Multifunctional Nanoparticles in Stem Cell Therapy for Cellular Treating of Kidney and Liver Disease

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy 1, EngyMaged Mohamed 2, Taiseer Mohamed Abd El-Daim 1, Amira Bahaa El Din 1, Heba Allah Abd El Nabi Eid 3, Esraa Ahmed Abu El qassem 4, Eman Ahmed Sayed 5, Doaa Ibrahim Maihop 1, Aisha Edress Abd Elkhaleq 1, Dalia Mahmoud Ezzat 6, Fatma El-zahraa Mahmoud Hassan 3, Fatma Mohammed Ali 4

Advances in stem cell treatment and nanotechnology have been considered as great promising destination for developing new strategies in regenerative medicine applications such as liver and kidney repairing. From previous studies, this review will focus on stem cells that can be divided into Embryonic stem cell, Adult stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell MSC, Induced pluripotent stem cell IPS, and their remarkable abilities to regenerate different damaged tissues, also discussing types of nanoparticles such as silver, gold, quantum dots, silica and iron oxide, and their effects on stem cell viability, differentiation, proliferation and cytotoxicity. The aim of overview is elucidating the mechanisms of internalizing nanoparticles in stem cells via providing analysis of the methods used in exploring the migration routes of stem cells and their reciprocity with microenvironment target in the body and tracking the fate of exogenously transplanted stem cells by using non-invasive techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging MRI, multimodality tracking, optical imaging and nuclear medicine imaging, which designed to follow up stem cell migration. However, MRI is greatly used in stem cell tracking and seems to be the most favorable tool for dynamically observation in vivo cell. Labeling of stem cells with nanoparticles overcame the problems in homing and guiding to desired site to be treated. The current understanding of stem cell migration to the site of injury in vivo and in vitro is almost achieved. This article will explain the distinctive strategies that were mentioned in previous researches such as: 1-enhancing homing of labeled stem cells with nanoparticles into damaged hepatic and renal tissues through inducing specific gene into stem cell, various chemokines and applying external magnetic field. 2-How to improve nanoparticles uptake by using transfection agents or covalently binding an exogenous protein or conjugating a receptor-specific monoclonal antibody. 3-contains stem cell labeling methods as extracellular labeling. Ultimately, our review indicates trails of researchers in nanoparticles utilization in stem cell therapy in both kidney and liver diseases.

HTML

 

Electrical and Mechanical Characterization of Vulcanized natural Rubber Filled with BaTiO3 Ceramic-Filler

U+1F5122019-04-21
Abear Abullah El-Gamal

Ceramic-rubber composites made of natural rubber (NR) loaded with various concentrations of BaTiO3 particles were prepared by mixing and hot pressing. A silane coupling agent (KH-570) was utilized to modify the BaTiO3 particles surface. The successful attachment of the coupling agent to the BaTiO3 particles was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The influence of surface modified BaTiO3 (SMBT) particles concentration on the morphological, cure, mechanical, and electrical properties of the resulting samples was explored. The elongation at break and the tensile strength decreased with the addition of SMBT particles, while the hardness of composites increased. An enhancement of the dielectric constant ( ε ′ ) of the composites was observed by incorporation of SMBT particles. The measured ε ′ of the composites was modeled using the theories of a heterogeneous medium. The dielectric loss showed a clear peak at high frequency, indicating the relaxation process of the orientational polarization.

HTML

 

Spectroscopy Study for the Structure Characterization of Chitosan/Montmorillonite nanocomposite With Different Loads

U+1F5122019-04-21
A. M. Shehap 1, M. A. Mahfouz 1*, Rabab A. Nasr 2, A. M. Ismail 3

Chitosan biopolymer and the montmorillonitenanoclay(MMT) are prepared in form of thin films by casting technique with different weight percentage(10,20,30,40,50,60,70 %) of MMT/Chitosan. Sonication method is used to obtain well dispersion as possible of MMT into chitosan.XRD,IR,UV/visible and thermal studies have been used to investigate the structural changes and the thermal stabilities for these high doping samples in order to be applicable for certain applications. The XRD confirms the existence of the interaction between chitosan and MMT and the IR showed the disappearance of some bands and the displacement of amid groups and the changes of intensities of the IR spectra that support the existence of structure changes depending upon the percentage of the load of MMT in Chitosan .The UV visible spectra showed certain absorption bands in the UV ranges at the low percentage of MMT as well as an evidence of theplasmon effect at high loading. The optical parameters such as the absorption edge,optical band energy and the refractive index are estimated for the different samples. The thermal analysis such as DSC and derivative TGA data are used to calculate the thermodynamic parameters through the decomposition processes that provide an evidence of the thermal stability and the complexion between nanoclay and Chitosan.

HTML

 

Influence of Er3+ Ion on the Samarium Environment in Phosphate Glasses

U+1F5122019-04-21
Aya. AbdelBakey 1*, M. A. Farag 2, M. El-Okr 2, T. Y. ElRasasi 3, M. K. El-Mansy 3

Samarium zinc sodium phosphate glasses doped by different Er2O3 concentrations were prepared using conventional melt quenching technique. The structural properties due to the influence of Er+3 ions on the presented glass network were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirm the amorphousity of the samples.Surface morphology and elemental composition of glasses were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) accompanying withElectron Dispersive spectra (EDX).The measured density , Molar volume,ion concentration, interatomic distance, polaron radius and field strength had been studied with respect to the concentration of Er+3. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that Q1 and Q2 were the mean structural units of these glasses and revealed the formation of Non-Bridging oxygen (NBO).

HTML

 

Searching for Nuclear Magic Numbers Close to Two-Protons and Two-Neutrons Drip Lines in Super and Ultra Heavy Regions

U+1F5122019-04-21
Mahmoud Yahia Ismail, Ali Yahia Ellithi, Hisham Anwer, Alaa Khaled Mahmoud

Recent researches carried out on the magicity of heavy and superheavy nuclei, some of them extend the interest to the ultra heavy regions. Our concern is the magicity of protons and neutrons in super and ultra heavy regions. Using Strutinsky's approach, and consider the shell correlation, residual pairing correction, two-nucleons separation energies and two-nucleons energy gap for even-even nuclei along Beta stability line and two-neutrons drip lines, over the ranges 70 ≥ Z ≥ 274 and 80 ≥ N ≥ 548 and 70 ≥ Z ≥ 212 and 126 ≥ N ≥ 548, respectively. We obtain the protons and neutrons magic numbers in these two regions, the new magic numbers are defined by Green's formula. Thecalculations is based on spherical structure of the nuclei considered and present evidences on new spherical magic nuclei in super and ultra heavy regions.

HTML

 

Thin Film Applications in Wound Healing

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M. Fahmy1,AlaaWesal Abd Ellatef2,Alaa M. Elsayed3,Asmaa Mamdouh Ahmed1,M.Hamdy El-Hakim1,Fayrouz Ali el Baioumy5, MarwaA. Abd Elazim6

Wound healing becomes more efficient and easier by the aid of thin films. Gelatin production of thin films used for wound dressing is due to its high curative effect, antibacterial and the easy way to form it as a thin film. Many studies were made on bacterial cultures to uncover the role of the gelatin thin films in the wound healing treatment process.Silk/gelatin (S/G) film displays excellent mechanical properties which is essential for wound healing applications which cannot be obtained from sole gelatin film. Collagen films have a good effect in improving wound healing process. One of the gel for wound healing purposes is Aloe vera gel which enhances the degree of collagen cross-linking and the synthesis of collagen after topical and systemic administration in wounds created in a diabetic rat model. Aloe vera-Ca-alginate films shows intrinsic properties of wound healing process like the flexibility and high transparency.Chitosan has been used for years in wound healing because of its ability to stimulate healing process, being nontoxic and has biodegradable properties. After the preparation of the previously mentioned thin films, some tests are carried on to show how these thin films affect wound healing process like characterization of films by FTIR, SEM. Also, for each thin film type, physical properties: like: water vapour permeability, oxygen transmission rate, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity are studied.In vivo and Vitro experiments demonstrated that these films showed antibacterial activity, decrease in wound size, low swelling behavior, nontoxicity and tissue repairing etc.

HTML

 

Empirical Study of Solar activity indicators, Halo CME and North Atlantic Oscillations for the 22nd & 23nd solar Cycles

U+1F5122019-04-21
M. Farghaly 1; S. Yousef 2,A. Tharwat 3

Influence of solar variability on the Earth’s climate requires studding solar interactions, and mechanisms that explain the response of the Earth’s climate system. The NAO (North Atlantic oscillation) is considered as one of the most dominant modes of global climate variability. Like El Niño, La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation, it is considered as free internal oscillation of the climate system not subjected to external forcing. It is shown, to be linked to energetic Solar eruptions. Surprisingly, it turns out that features of solar activity have been related to El Niño and La Niña, also have a significant impact on the NAO. A substantial portion is associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a hemispheric meridional oscillation as atmospheric mass with centers of action near Iceland and over the subtropical Atlantic. Sunspots area and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are from the most important solar events as far as space weather effects are concerned, linking solar eruptions, major interplanetary disturbances, and geomagnetic storms. A halo CME, which is usually associated with activity near the solar disk center, has great influence on space weather because an Earthward halo CME is indicative of coronal mass and magnetic fields moving out toward the Earth, therefore likely to cause geoeffective disturbances. In this work different statistical toolswere implemented to investigate the interrelationships among sun spots area and halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) with NAO index on the solar cycles 22,23, the results were discussed to show their dependency which consequently can be used to predict the behavior of NAO index in the next solar cyclesusing as an indicator to climatic variability.

HTML

 

Improving the efficiency of QDSSCs Based on TiO2/CdS(Silar)/TBAI capped CdSe (Colloid) Photoanodes

U+1F5122019-04-21
M. Nabil 1, K. Easawi 1, S. Abdallah 1, M. K. Elmansy 2, S. Negm1, H. Talaat 3

CdS/CdSe co-sensitized photoelectrode for QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSSCs)has been prepared.CdSis synthesized using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (silar), whileCdSehas been synthesized by organometallic method. The TOPO and HDA capping of CdSe QDs has been modified to be Tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) in order to decrease the CdSe-TiO2 molecular separation. The results show that the short current density increased from 2.1 mA/cm2for (CdS-Silar) to 3.75 mA/cm2 for (CdS-Silar/CdSe–TBAI).This increase is due to the higher conduction band (CB) of the CdSe QDs than TiO2 and CdS (silar). An energy conversion efficiency of 0.92% is achievedby using TiO2/CdS/CdSephotoanode.

HTML

 

STUDYING LASER IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ZnO VARISTORS

U+1F5122019-04-21
M. M. Saadeldin 1, Makram Ibrahim 2, M.Y. Helali 2

Three samples of ZnOvaristors doped with concentrations of copper oxide of 0.5 mol%, 1 mol%, and 3 mol%., with other impurities like carbon and iron.The traditional methods of preparing samples by mixing, drying, pressing and firing at 1100 ° C were used to obtain the samples in the form of dry solid discs. ZnO is a semiconductor ceramic material having a non-linear relationship between current and voltage, this property is used mainly to protect electric circuits from over-voltage risks on important parts of the electrical circuits such as various electronic components. The effects of the AC current frequency from 0 to 100 kHz and temperature from 20 to 170 ° C were studied on the dielectric constant, and electrical conductivity and comparisons of these parameters before and after laser irradiation are concluded. It was clear from the results that the carbon element which exists in all samples with different concentrations with the highest concentration in sample (2) has a big effect on the conductivity, the electrical conductivity of sample (2) highly increased than those of samples (1) and (3), while the iron component as an electrically conductive element is found by EDX only in sample (3) and in a very small concentration, and its effect on the electrical properties of this sample is thought to be negligible with respect to the effect of its high carbon content.

HTML

 

Multi-Space Observations of Magnetic Field Variations Using Satellite Data

U+1F5122019-04-21
N. Mostafa 1, E. Ghamry 2, A. Fathy 3, A.Y. Ellithi 1, M, Gobashy 4

Sun is a source of heating, light and releases massive amounts of ionized particles (plasma) in all directions of interplanetary (IP) space; it causes an active source for geomagnetic activities, which in turn affects the navigation systems. A class of these activities happened sudden variation in the global magnetic field namely, geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC) and can be detected by magnetometers on the ground and in space. The current study concerns with the SC measurements obtained from a number of satellites distributed around the earth to have a global feature of the magnetic field at different local times and different altitudes.

HTML

 

FROM THE ATOMIC FABRIC TO THE COSMIC FABRIC AND THE ORIGIN OF DARK MATTER

U+1F5122019-04-21
Abdelrahman Yasser Abdelrahman

of a mixture of fields, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force and electromagnetic force. Where the nucleus represents the center of curvature in this fabric which makes electrons move according to the gravity of the nucleus, and the movement of the electrons create waves in the fabric which in turn creates radiation, and there maybe exist a weak radiation results from these waves which makes it undetectable or maybe it lies outside of the electromagnetic radiation range or it creates particles that we didn't observe yet. There are two experiments supporting the above assumption: First, when placing an atomic clock (Cesium clock)on an airplane and placing a secondatomic clock on the ground, when the aircraft take off for a flight and return to ground, a delay I time was observed on the first clock relative to the second one which proved time delay according to special theory of relativity. Regarding the time that an atomic clock express, it represents the time of radioactive decay which changes depending on the mass of the nucleus such that it takes longer time for heavier nucleus, in other words, a delay in time. As the special relativity says, a moving particle acquires excess mass and that what happened for the nucleus in the atomic clock and made a delay in time due to excess in mass which creates stronger curvature in the atomic fabric and changed the waves in it which in turn affected the resulting radiation, here we find that the atomic fabric is affected by speed similar to the cosmic fabric which is affected by bodies' velocity, so its clear that there is a connection and relation between the two fabrics. Second: Quantum Entanglement, when reversing the rotation of a particle, there is another particle that reverses its rotation to preserve "Conservation of spin". Thinking of the two previously mentioned fabrics, the atomic fabric in which the first particlelies in transmits information through the cosmic fabricto the atomic fabricof the other particle. So, there is a connection between the two fabrics and it is also evident that other dimensions are approaching them from each other, shortening the distance traveled by the information of the first particleto the other particle. Here, after two demonstrations, the first was observed in the macroscopic world and the second in the microscopic world. The point where the two fabrics meet in spatial dimensions is "Singularity" point where the two fabrics have their maximum possible curve, but they are connected in the non-spatial dimensions, which is obvious from the two previous experiments. If the small particle lies in the atomic fabric and It is also the cornerstone of this universe, so, the atomic fabric is the basic component of the cosmic fabric, that is, the foundation stone of this fabric, and from here we can explain why gravity is the weakest force in the universe. According to the atomic fabric hypothesis, I think that when we measured gravity, we measured it in the atomic fabric, i.e.. in local fabric dominated by electromagnetism and nuclear forces and when measuring gravity in the cosmic fabric, gravity will appear to be the strongest. According to these hypotheses, we can also explain why there is a magnetic field in the universe from the ground up, Returning to the point of singularity that the big bang theory tells us about, there was the substance of the universe clustered at one point with a very high density, and according to my previous assumptions, this point contained inside it the atomic fabric, and at the time of the explosion, the particles came out and with its fabrics which united forming the cosmic fabric.But, where the magnetic field comes from and why its effect is noticeable in the universe? the answer to this question is through my study of evolution of the stars which states that: when stars consumethe nuclear fuel, this reduces the pressure resulting from the process of nuclear fusion in the nucleus of the star, which makes gravity overcomes the internal pressure and makes the star shrink on itself until it reaches a certain level that gravity cannotcompress the star more due to the internal pressure of electrons which resists compression. But, in massive stars, gravity compresses the electrons inside the nucleus forcing it to react according to this equation e + P ----> n + neutrino The result of this process is a neutron, which in turn will create a neutron pressure that prevents the star from compressing more and a neutron star is born with strong magnetic field. But in the case of very massive stars, I think that gravity will overcome the pressure of neutrons and press the neutrons making it interact with each other, which will produce a huge energy and another particle.This particle is the generator of the magnetic field in the universe, so it is like monopole, that acts like higgs boson - which makes matter having its mass- as it makes matter having its magnetic property,But when pressed more by the attraction with another particle like it, produces a particle that produces the magnetic field of the universe. So, a particle is responsible for the magnetic field in the universe that may be resulted from fusion of neutrons or other particles undetected yet. This particle can be existed inside the black hole near to the singularity point where neutrons can be compressed or any other undetected particles to be compressed. Comparing this state with the early state of the universe, the assemblage of the matter of the universe in the first singularity point of the universe requires the existence of this particle there which originated the magnetic field at the moment of big bang. Finally we conclude that; we can find an answer to the abundance of matter to antimatter, by reconsidering the positron (anti-electron) detection experiment, after exposing a screen to gamma rays in existence of a magnetic field, it was noticed that both electron and positron were emitted each having an opposite direction of motion (having mirror image) and symmetry. Thus, by connecting all of the aforementioned facts and conclusions, the mere occurrence of the Big Bang implies the gain of a huge amount of energy to the pressurized matter inside the singularity; perhaps even much more than the Gamma Radiation’s, or a new type of radiation that is not yet discovered. Moreover, the particle, that produces an electromagnetic radiation, had already done that then, and we have seen it in the laboratory. However, on the large scale of the universe, matter went out in one direction with the antimatter going out in the other symmetrical one. That suggests that there might be other sides of the universe since the departure of particles, be it matter or antimatter, in a disordered way where entropy was increasing, and the particles tended more to disorder than order. Yet, the other sides of the universe, including the one we are already in, rotate around a singularity point or at rest! And what makes it hold up to that point up till now? If we are to answer this by assuming that this point is the attraction point for this universe, then in what fabric does it make its curvature? Again, if we are to answer this by the fabric of the universe, however, the fabric of the universe in itself was produced from the atomic fabric that was contained inside it. This means, through personal conclusion as before, that there exists something that encompasses that point, perhaps a third fabric that we do not know a thing about yet. However, it will open up a whole new and deeper perspective of the gravity than the one the General Relativity had brought up which did not explain why does the universal fabric curve (or deform) under the existence of mass. Also, at the detection of the last gravitational waves, it was found that it was received just at the same time the corresponding electromagnetic wave was received. That implies that they both propagate at the same speed, and that makes us wonder whether they both are special cases of a broader form of radiation of which they are both just a part of. The dark matter is the more fundamental matter and it consists of very small particles which fuses together to form the ordinary matter. I concluded this from studying quasars and it's evolution.

HTML

 

Some Physical Properties of SBR/NBR Rubber Blends

U+1F5122019-04-21
A.Y. Zanaty, M. Hafez, A. S. Doma, S.A. Khairy, H.H. Hassan

Different blends of SBR/NBR compatibilized by butadiene rubber(BR) were prepared according to the well known standard methods. The modified blend of unfilled SBR/NBR was characterized on the basis of the effect of blend ratio on curing parameters. Themechanical properties, abrasion resistance, compression set and swelling properties of blends were investigated.It was found thatSBR/NBR blends showed comparatively better mechanical properties compared to each other individually rubber system. Curing parameters e.g. low torque (ML) was increased. while a reduction in cure time was observed with increasing SBR ratio in blends. Results revealed that increasing SBR results in an enhancement of tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (Eb).The effect of blend ratioon the swelling and compression set behavior of SBR/NBR compounds was also investigated. From the current investigation it was found that, the increase SBR loading inherent with dramaticallydecline in swelling percentage while the compression set increases with increasing NBR content.Overall, an observed enhancement in curing parameters and mechanical properties has been achieved by studying the effect of blend ratio on the unfilled SBR/NBRblends.

HTML

 

EFFECT OF COLD PLASMA ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DPPC LIPOSOMES

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M Fahmy*, Asmaa A Hassan, Ghada F Abdelfatah, Salma Y Mohamed, Mohamed H Gaber

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has many promising applications in biomedical engineering, dentistry and oncology. This study investigates the effect of CAP on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-glycerol-3- phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes prepared by the thin film hydration method which are used as a model for lipid bilayer membrane. DPPC liposomes were exposed to cold plasma 2, 3 and 5 minutes. The effects of cold plasma on DPPC characterization parameters such as size, charge, FTIR absorption spectrum, UVvisible spectrum and phase transition temperatures were investigated. Exposure of DPPC liposomes to CAP led to an increment in the size and stability of liposomes by increasing the exposure time. 2-min CAP exposure was found to increase liposomal size through particle aggregation, whereas, 3 and 5 min exposure increases the liposome size via adsorption of negative species emerging from CAP on their surfaces. As depicted from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, the electrostatic interaction between the CAP species and phospholipids acyl groups of DPPC resulted in the change of DPPC conformation. The hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules arranged more closer, especially with increasing the exposure time. Thus, it can be concluded that CAP alters the physical and chemical characteristics of DPPC liposomes.

HTML

 

Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Formic Acid at Iron and Nickel Oxides Nanoparticles-Modified Platinum Surfaces

U+1F5122019-04-21
Bilquis Ali Al-Qodami 1, Sayed Y. Sayed 1, Nageh K. Allam 2, Ahmad M. Mohammad 1

Electrocatalytic oxidation of small organic molecules has recently gained more attention because of its application in power conversion technologies.The formic acid electro-oxidation (FAO); the principal anodic reaction in the direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs), is usually catalyzedon either Pt or Pd-based surfaces.Generally,Pd-based catalysts exhibit much higher catalytic activity toward FAO and less intermediates' poisoning than Pt-based catalysts butare, unfortunately, subjected to acute deactivation;making them unsuitable for commercial purposes. On the other hand, Pt-based catalysts which have been proven more durable than Pd catalysts (albeitof less catalytic activity)for FAO represent the ideal choice so far for FAO. At Pt-based catalysts, FAO proceeds in a dual-pathway mechanism;the direct(dehydrogenationdesirableless overpotential) and indirect (dehydration undesirable  higher overpotential) oxidation avenues [1]. The indirect pathway of FAO involves the catalytic poisoning of the Pt surface with CO intermediate that is produced "non-faradaically" at open circuit potential. This poisoning is the main dilemma deteriorating the performance of DFAFCs as it severely lowers the energy and power densities of the cells.Herein, we propose a new catalyst composed of iron and nickel oxides nanoparticles andprepared by the layer-by-layer electrodeposition technique on Pt surfaces.Thedepositionsequence of the catalyst’singredientsis optimized to attain the highest catalytic activity and stability toward FAO. The transition metal oxide nanostructures assisted in mediating the reaction mechanism via speeding the charge transfer and in imparting a geometrical immunity to the Pt surface mitigating the CO poisoning which ultimately improved the catalyst's durability. Various electrochemical and materials characterizationtechniques including the cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry,field- emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were all combined to assess the catalytic activity and stability of the catalyst and further to report the catalysts' morphology, composition and structure.

HTML

 

Simulation of Fusion Evaporation of Mn52 By Ultra Intense Laser Fusion of Al27 Targets

U+1F5122019-04-21
Lotfia El Nadi 1,2*, M. Ramadan 3, M. El Nagdy 4

Ultra Intense Laser UIL interaction with Al27 target could possibly give rise to a nuclear reaction of the target nuclei with the accelerated target charged ion in the laser field. The residual radioactive nuclei of Mn 52 and Mn 51 could well be due to evaporation of deuterons and tritons from the created compound nucleus according to the nuclear reaction: Al27 (Al27, H2) Mn52 and AL27 (Al27 + H3) Mn51 We here will report simulation of compound nucleus formation followed by particle evaporation applying Mont Calro code PACE-4 to estimate the possible crosssection for forming highly excited compound nucleus Fe54 leading to the final Nuclei Mn52 and Mn51. The results shown in the figure below indicate that the highest cross section of such possible two reactions is peaking at Al27 ions projectile energy ≈ 60 MeV (2.222 MeV/ A ) and 70 MeV ( 2.593 MeV/A ) respectively. The cross sections for production of the neutron deficient Mn nuclei resulting from the two above mentioned nuclear reactions of Al27 + Al27 are also estimated. The estimated cross-section of Mn52 and Mn51 positron emitters shown in figure indicate maximum values of approximately 30 and 150 mb at the aluminum ion energies mentioned above respectively. The nuclear reactions leading to Mn positron emitters are expected to also provide deuterons and tritons with the same cross-sections. The energies of these particles (H2 and H3) are calculated considering the newest standard Tables of the Nuclear Masses. Possible acceleration of these emitted particles in the laser field is also expected. The Possibility of a new approach of fusion of the deuterons and tritons without implosion during the confined short laser pulse duration is proposed. In this approach an intense laser field equal or above 100 Peta Watt would be needed. Simulation calculations for the form factors will be reported. The design of the experimental set up to be applied to attain such Fusion energy and overcome probable difficulties will be elaborated.

HTML