Cairo University

MTPR Journal

 

A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR INCREASING EFFICIENCY OF SILICON SOLAR CELLS

U+1F512Silicon; Solar cells; V-shaped structure; Light confinement & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0012
A. IBRAHIM

A new type of photovoltaic system with higher generation power density has been studied in detail. The feature of the system is a V-shaped module (VSM) with two tilted monocrystalline solar cells. Compared to solar cells in a flat and tilted at a fixed 300 from horizontal orientation, the VSM enhances external quantum efficiency and leads to an increase of 30 to 35% in power conversion efficiency. Due to the VSM technique, short-circuit current density was raised from 25.94 to 34.7 mA/cm2, but both fill factor and open-circuit voltage were approximately unchanged. For the VSM similar results (about 35% increases) were obtained for solar cells fabricated by using mono-crystalline silicon wafers with only conventional background impurities.

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Physics of the Human Brain and its History

U+1F5132020-07-01 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(20)6-12
Raghda Elraaie M. Amin

Brain has been the most mysterious puzzling organ in biology, due to its functional and structural complexity, its unavailable components for direct observation of interactions, mechanisms, and operations at work. Despite the immense hard work of many researchers and doctors, there are many issues about the brain which are still uncovered and many different contents undiscovered. The methodology of learning about brain itself is quite handicapped, (which will be explained further in this journal) still very slow & insufficient, which implies the interference of Modern Science and Technology to deal with this critical situation by Brain Modelling using Electronics and Programming. In this article, our main concern is the brain, where Physics plays an instrumental role in understanding the brain with its numerous functions, unravelling its structure, diagnosing and treating diseases, when it's common to hear people saying that the CPU is the computer's brain, there are so many affinities between them, more than just the processor, we can make a model of the brain using a computer having a specific design to mimic the brain's environment and features.

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Super-Continuum femtosecond Laser generation

U+1F5132020-01-20 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(20)1-5
Walid Tawfik

A novel methodology to produce a high-power femtosecond using supercontinuum generation in hollow-fiber has been developed. In this work, femtosecond high energy laser pulses have been observed. These pulses were generated due to supercontinuum caused by self –phase modification (SPM) in neon gas filled in a one-meter hollow-fiber followed by two chirped-mirrors for dispersion compensation. The created pulses reached high energy of sub-mJ at 1 KHz repetition rate. The characterization of femtosecond pulses in the regime of few-cycle pulses is considered using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER). The SPIDER was used to observe precise measurements of pulse duration. The spectral bandwidth found to reach ultra-wide range from 600 – 950 nm. It has been found that the output pulse width is affected by the pulse duration of the injected femtosecond pulses into the optical fiber under different gas pressures. The observed results revealed that the nonlinear SPM increases with the gas pressure. The obtained pulses can be used to control the produced femtosecond laser characterization in future.

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Angular Distribution and Transverse Momenta of Projectile Fragments of Oxygen Nucleus Collided with Emulsion at 3.7A GeV

U+1F5132019-10-15 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)58-61
A. Abdelsalam, M. S. El-Nagdy, A. M. Abdalla, A. Saber

Transverse-momentum and angular distributions of all residual charges due to fragmentations for 16O projectile on emulsion at 3.7A GeV are recorded and compared with that obtained for 12C, 22Ne, 24Mg and 28Si at the same momentum. The experimental parameters that indicate the mechanism responsible for projectile fragmentation are discussed. The effect of target size on fragmentation process for both 16O and 24Mg projectiles are studied. The results, in the given range of masses and energy show that there is unified mechanism responsible for projectile fragmentation.

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Two-dimensional system - black phosphorus: electronic, atomic structure and transport properties of bP(100) single crystals

U+1F5132019-10-01 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)50-57
Ionov A. M., Zagitova A. A., Bozhko S. I., Kulakov V. I., Zverev V. N.

The electronic, atomic structure and transport properties of black phosphorus (bP) single crystals prepared by high-pressure methods and a gas-transport reaction were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM). After exposure of the clean surface under atmospheric conditions, the features in the XPS spectra corresponding to the oxidized form of phosphorus were observed. The appearance of oxidized areas on the surface was also detected using AFM. The atomic resolution of the surface of a single crystal was obtained by the STM method. As a result of low-temperature transport measurements, impurity activation energies were determined, and negative magnetoresistance along the Y direction was detected.

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Design and Evaluation of Flat Solar Concentrator

U+1F5132019-09-29 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)62-68
Lotfia El Nadi, Maha K. Omar, Mohammed Fikry

Flat solar concentrators are designed to focus solar radiation in a linear shape. The concentrator is designed to be the primary step in a sequence of steps that eventually generate solar laser. The focused beam from the concentrator output is used to optically pump a lasing medium (iodine medium) which is compressed in a one meter long and 8 mm diameter quartz tube. The design used here is formed of two flat mirrors with the availability of changing the angel between them. The two mirrors are displaced to create a gap between the two mirrors at the line of their intersection. This research was dedicated to focus down the highest intensity of solar radiation so that the optimal operating conditions of the concentrator are achieved. Multiple parameters were changed, and their effects were simulated theoretically. The highest solar photon concentration was established at the bottom line connecting the two mirrors. In this respect, a movable semiconductor spectrometer was applied to study both the focused radiation spectrum and intensity.

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Thermodynamic properties of hot quark gluon plasma gas

U+1F5132019-09-15 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)39-44
M. H. M. Soleiman, S. S. Abdel-Aziz, and A. I. Imsaeri

– In the present study a method is developed to get and explore thermal properties of hot infinite nuclear matter in the phase of quark gluon plasma-gas. Two models (modified from MIT model to fit experimental data in nuclei collisions) are used as case studies. The models were introduced in the form of parametric polytropic equations of state for quark gluon plasma gas. The volumetric specific heat capacity at constant volume c_v, the adiabatic speed of sound c_s, and isentropic compressibility κ_s of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) have been calculated as continuous functions of total energy density. It is found that the speed of sound increases as the energy content of QGP increases, while c_v and κ_s shows physical behavior like dilute gases.

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On the performance of a Flat Plate Collector

U+1F5132019-09-15 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)31-38
M. K. El-Adawi, S. A. Shalaby, S. S. Mustafa, A. M. Abdul-Aziz

Flat plate collector with thin absorber is studied. Heat balance equation is solved to estimate the temperature of the absorber and its variation along the local day time. The same equation is used to determine the temperature of the working fluid. A published expression [20] to predict with good fitting the hourly global solar irradiance is considered as a source function for the incident solar energy. Three absorbers of different materials: Copper, Aluminum and Mica are considered. The water is considered as a working fluid. Two cooling conditions at the absorber front surface are considered. Factors affecting the efficiency are revealed.

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Some Physical Properties of SBR/NBR Rubber Blends-Loaded with Nano-Sized Black Fillers

U+1F5132019-09-01 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)1-10
M. Hafez, A. S. Doma, A.Y. Zanaty, A. S. Abdel-Rahman, S.A. Khairy, H. H. Hassan

Different blends of SBR/NBR compatibilized by butadiene rubber (BR) were prepared according to the well-known standard methods. The modified blends of unfilled SBR/NBR was characterized on the basis of the effect of blend ratio by curing parameters, mechanical characteristics, abrasion resistance, compression set and swelling properties. It was found that SBR/NBR blends showed comparatively better mechanical properties compared to each rubber individually. Curing parameters e.g. low torque (ML) and high one (MH) were increased, while a reduction in the curing and scorch times were decreased with increasing SBR ratio in the blend. Results revealed that, the increase of SBR content results in an enhancement of tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (Eb). The effect of blend ratio showed a peak value for (TS) & (Eb) at 50SBR/50NBR. For that, two types of carbon blacks, N220 and N774 were incorporated with the optimum blend ratio (50SBR/50NBR) by different concentrations. The effect of carbon blacks on the mechanical characteristics, hardness, abrasion resistance, compression test and even the swelling test in benzene have been discussed according to the recent current theories.

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Thermodynamic properties of hot quark gluon plasma gas

U+1F5132019-05-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)45-49
M. H. M. Soleiman, S. S. Abdel-Aziz, A. Abdelfattah Omar

Identification of mass numbers concerning the nuclei ignite the atmospheric extensive air showers (EAS) is vital in the studies of Ultra High Energetic Cosmic Rays Interactions (UHECRI). The present study introduces a simple technique in processing of the shower data at the detector level (1400 m over sea-level) to identify the nucleus that starts the cascade of the EAS. CORSIKA 7.6900, which is the EAS-Monte Carlo generator is used to generate detailed data at detection level 1400 m over sea-level and energy ~ 10^6GeV. The data are analyzed and the energy spectrum is obtained for the generated EAS. The EAS spectra for light nuclei (H and He), medium nuclei (Mg), and Heavy nuclei (Ti, Cr, Fe) are obtained, totally and with photons are subtracted. It is found that, the spectral slope of the tail of the spectra with photons subtracted depend on the primary nuclei’s mass-number.

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Detection of interplanetary coronal mass ejections' signature using artificial neural networks

U+1F5132016-12-31 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(16)1-10
Ramy Mawad, A. Radi, R. Saber, A. Mahrous, Mohamed Youssef, Walid Abdel-Sattar, Hussein M. Farid, Shahinaz Yousef

We have estimated the arrival time of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) shocks during solar cycle 23 (the period from 1996 to 2007) using the artificial neural network. Under our model, we could match 97% of the listed coronal mass ejection CME-ICME events selected by Cane and Richardson (2010) using the initial velocities of the ICME events. Whereas, when we used the ICME velocity at a distance 20R⊙, our model succeeded to match only 84% of the listed ICME events. The prediction of CME travel-time correlated to the initial speed of CMEs, we found a high correlation coefficient between initial speed of CME and calculated travel time under our model (R≈74) with power fitting. The prediction of ICME arrival time can be better estimated from initial speed and linear speed of CMEs more than from final speed or speed at 20 R⊙.

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Evolution of the binary neutron star system PSR1913+16 due to gravitational waves emission

U+1F5132016-12-25 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(16)11-19
Shahinaz Yousef, Zeinab A. Mabrouk, Mostafa Kamal Ahmed

We have studied how the eccentric orbits of binary neutron stars evolve due to the emission of gravitational waves according to Popov and Imshennik method [1]. We have applied this method to PSR1913+16 binary system. Our results for this system are highly comparable with the latest analysis for that system based on published timing observations from 1974 through 2006 [2].The most important results from our study are: elliptical orbits shrink in size and become near circular at their late stages of evolution while the circular orbits don’t change their shapes; and most of the energy due to gravitational radiation emission is lost at high eccentricities near the periastron position.

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On the correlation between Earth's orbital perturbations and oscillations of sea level and concentration of greenhouse gases

U+1F5132015-06-01 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(15)1-9
Ramy Mawad

During the studied period 1996-2007 I noticed that, the rising and oscillations of the sea level, global temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, ice mass of Antarctica, and melting of Greenland ice are highly correlated with Earth's orbital perturbations. Monthly variations of those parameters have two periodicities. Stronger one called “long-periodic cycle”, it is strongly related to solar activity. It appears as a rising trend during my studied period. Observation data of iceberg mass and its melting, global sea level, and concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide is recent and does not cover a millennium or Wolf-Gleissberg solar cycle. So, it does not indicate a global warming. Second cycle is called “short-periodic cycle”. it is a weaker force but still stronger than human activities forcing. It appears as oscillations around the rising trend. The short periodic cycle of all mentioned parameters is found correlated to Earth's orbital perturbations which are indicating a global warming and global warming is a natural phenomenon. Global warming is strongly corelated to Sun, Earth’s orbit, and our space. I conclude that the productivity of natural greenhouse gases is greater than that produced by human activity. The current proposed global warming is not a result of human activities, rather just temporary epoch and natural phenomena. The Earth's orbital perturbations are in an excellent positive coherence with the Greenland ice mass but in a negative coherence with the Antarctic ice mass. My results are in good agreement with Yousef (2000) and Akasofu (2010). I propose that the natural source of rising in concentration of greenhouse gases can be attributed to two causes: 1) Comets and asteroids, which are still carrying water molecules and some of greenhouse gas’ molecules to the Earth’s atmosphere; 2) Solar wind, which is composed greenhouse gases in ionization state. It may react and recombined though upper atmosphere before arriving to atmospheric lower levels at poles by unknown process. The global temperature is found to be correlated to Earth’s orbital perturbation too. This is because the declination angle is varying through the year. Output solar energy that arrives to the Earth depends on Sun-Earth distance too.

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Fine structure calculations of atomic data for Ar XVI

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(14)1-15
A. I. Refaie

Fine structure energy levels, wavelengths, log gf and allowed transition probabilities (E1) have been calculated for Lithium-like Ar XVI. The optimized electrostatic parameters by a least square approach, have been used in the calculation to include the configuration interaction and relativistic effects. A total number of 69 Ar XVI levels having total angular momenta, 1/2≤ J ≤9/2 of even and odd parities, orbital angular momenta 2≤ Ɩ ≤ 4, with 546 E1 transitions for 6≤n≤10 are considered using the relativistic effect in the Breit-Pauli method, where n is the principal quantum number. A comparison is made with the available results in literature.

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Fine structure calculations of atomic data for Ar XVI

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(14)16-25
A. I. Refaie

Absolute ionization and excitation rate coefficients have been evaluated for Lithium-like Argon ion in the plasma for some arbitrary excited states at certain chosen electron temperatures kTe and for electron densities Ne. The populations of 24 excited levels are calculated for the doublet state of the Li-like Argon ion. The calculations have been carried out using the coupled rate simultaneous equations including the monopole and quadruple transitions in the calculations in addition to the dipole transitions. A theoretical population model has been developed to study the influence of the different processes, contributing to the population of the different levels on the plasma parameters. The population densities of these different levels have then been derived using these rate coefficients. Neither experimental nor theoretical data have been found in literature for comparison.

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Full wave solution and simulations of laser pulse amplification

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)26-32
M. A. Khereldeen, M. Kotb, Osama M. Yassin

The need for low cost, compact, high- power laser systems with their applications in medicine and high energy physics is growing rapidly. Counter propagating laser pulses amplification promise a breakthrough by the use of much smaller amplifying media, that is, millimeter plasma scale. The full-wave solution for the two laser pulses interact in almost homogenous or plasma channel is conducted along with particle-in-cell simulation for the same pulses’ parameters. Motivated by the promise of reduced cost and complexity of the intense lasers, the amplitudes of laser pulses are taken to be small (a0 < 1). The growth rate of the seed pulse and the dephasing limitations are calculated. The results show that the energy is transferred from the pump pulse to the seed pulse effectively depending on the length of amplification and the isolation of the limiting conditions. A wide variety of system parameters such as frequency of laser pulses, plasma density matched to three waves interaction, and intensity of the pump wave and seed wave are studied. The influence of plasma and pulses parameters on simulation results are thoroughly investigated using a moving window technique and are compared with theoretical and numerical predictions. The comparison shows that the numerical full wave solution is very sensitive to any plasma density changes near the entrance of the pump pulse into the plasma.

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Directed Radiation of High-Energy Light Against Gravity Vector

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)33-41
Kholmurad Khasanov

In this article are described the gravitation-light interaction and its characteristics. The frequency of light emitted from the source depends on its position in space. This phenomenon was detected in experiments with gas electric discharges, incandescent wires and lamps. The change in frequency is observed along the gravity vector. Experiments provide evidence of potential gravitational energy turn into the energy of electromagnetic radiation.

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Blends of Natural Rubber/Styrene Butadiene Rubber (NR/SBR) loaded with different ratios of N220 carbon black filler were prepared. The mechanical properties of pure blends and those loaded with different ratios of carbon black were investigated.

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)42-54
P. A. LOUKAKOS , E. STRATAKIS, G. D. TSIBIDIS, D. GRAY, M. BARBEROGLOU, C. FOTAKIS

The application of temporally shaped femtosecond laser pulses in the micro/nano-structuring of semiconductor surfaces is demonstrated. As an initial step towards full pulse shaping, sequences of double pulses with variable temporal spacing in the picosecond time domain with equal intensity have been used. Craters decorated with nm-sized ripples are formed following the laser-surface interaction depending on the irradiation conditions. The area, depth and strikingly the ripple periodicity show a dependence on the temporal delay between the double pulses. Our analysis and explanation for the dependence of the micro and nano-morphological features on the pulse delay is based on a combination of mechanisms including laser-triggered ultrafast excitation and relaxation on a semiconductor surface such as carrier excitation, ultrafast carrier-lattice energy exchanges and energy transport along with the slower phenomena of melting, the corresponding hydrodynamics and re-solidification that follow until the final surface morphology is established. Our investigations on laser-irradiated Si and ZnO surfaces are discussed.

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The electronic band structure of Nd2Fe14B from First-Principles calculations

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)52-57
Abeer E. Aly

Electronic structure calculations for the permanent magnet material Nd2Fe14B has been calculated using spin-polarized full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method. This method is highly effective for systems with very complex structures. The results presented include the band structure of Nd(4f) site and their partial density of states (DOS). The band structure for Nd (4f) site is in good agreement with the self-consistent calculations. We calculated the results for Nd2Fe14B by spin polarized without spin-orbit coupling.

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Vicinal Si(hhm) surfaces: templates for nanostructures fabrication

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)58-64
S.I. Bozhko, A.N. Chaika, A.M. Ionov

Fabrication of well ordered low dimensional structures on clean and metal-decorated stepped Si(hhm) surfaces is discussed. The atomic structure of clean Si(557)7×7 and Si(556)7×7 surfaces fabricated using special annealing procedures and metal-decorated Ag/Si(557) and Gd/Si(557) systems has been studied using high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction. The investigations demonstrate feasibility of fabrication of 1D- and 2D-structures of gadolinium and silver atoms on the Si(557) surface.

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Effect of blending ratio and Carbon concentration on the stress-strain characteristics for NR/SBR Rubber

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)65-72
A. S. Abdel-Rahman, M. H. Soleiman, H. H. Hassan, S. S. Abdel-Aziz

Blends of Natural Rubber/Styrene Butadiene Rubber (NR/SBR) loaded with different ratios of N220 carbon black filler were prepared. The mechanical properties of pure blends and those loaded with different ratios of carbon black were investigated. The (50NR/50SBR), 40N220/(50NR/50SBR) blends were found to exhibit the highest values of tensile strength and elongation at break. The theoretical Mooney-Rivlin model was applied to NR/SBR and supports the result of stress-strain characteristics. The values of shore hardness (A) for all samples were measured and showed a marked increase by increasing the black content.

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Growth of layered wedge-shaped islands of Pb on the vicinal Si: new mechanism of twin boundary formation

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)73-80
S. I. Bozhko, A. S. Ksyonz A. M. Ionov, D. A. Fokin, V. Dubost, F. Debontridder2, T. Cren and D. Roditchev

The growth of Pb on a clean vicinal Si(557) surface at room temperature was studied using the Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. We observed anisotropic tilted wedge-shaped Pb-islands to grow following the Stransky-Krastanov scenario. The elongation of the islands along the step edges of Si is associated with the anisotropic potential of the vicinal template. The observed peculiar slab-like stacking morphology of the formed wedge-shaped islands is discussed considering the substrate-induced strain, twin formation and the energy of the electron gas confined inside the islands.

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Structural and multiferroic properties of nanostructured barium doped Bismuth Ferrite

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)81-89
M. A. Ahmed, M. S. Ayoub, M. M. Mostafa, M. M. El-Desoky

Multiferroic nanoparticles of Bi1-xBaxFeO3 (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 mol%) samples were prepared using conventional solid-state method. The nanostructural, multiferroic properties of the prepared samples were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show the formation of BiBaFeO3 with single-phase rhombohedral-hexagonal structure. Spin canting or impurity phase could be a probable reason for the origin of ferromagnetism. At room temperature, remnant magnetization increased 18 times more than its initial value. A change in the magnetization is observed around 742-833 K. Néel temperature (TN) registers an increase of 30 times of Ba-doped BiFeO3 in comparison with undoped BiFeO3. The dielectric properties were affected by the properties of the substitutional ions as well as the crystalline structure of the present samples. Substitution with Ba2+ ions also improved the ferroelectric polarization with remanent magnetization polarization of 89 mC/cm2. The simultaneous occurrence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectric hysteresis loops in BiBaFeO3 multiferroic nanoparticles system at room temperature makes it a potential candidate for information storage and spintronics.

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Synthesis and characterization of Tin oxide thin film, effect of annealing on multilayer film

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)90-99
Mohamed Shaban, G. F. Attia, Mohamed A. Basyooni, Hany Hamdy

Nano crystalline Tin oxide thin film of multiple layers was successfully prepared by the sol-gel method with, spin coater has been used to deposit the films. The starting material is SnCl2. The SnO2 material was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The optical properties (A, T, R) of the SnO2 thin film of various annealing temperatures (400,500,600 Co) have been studied. Characterization results indicated that the products are composed of crystalline SnO2 nanoparticles which exhibit the cassiterite-type tetragonal crystal structure. SEM revealed that with increase annealing temperature, the uniformity of the film increased. XRD measurements showed that the grain size increased from 1.06, 1.48, 1.71 nm. The variations of the refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (K) and Optical Conductivity with the wavelength have been studied. Nevertheless, the variation of the optical band gap with film thicknesses shows a significantly decrease in the values of the band gap with increase the film thicknesses.

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Thermal stability and kinetic studies of gelatin/tgs composite films

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)100-104
A. M. Shehap; Kh. H. Mahmouda; M. F. H. Abd El-kader Tarek M. El-Basheer

The composite films of gelatin and gelatin/TGS were prepared successfully by using the solvent-casting technique with different composition ratios of the two materials (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt%TGS). Films exhibited similar X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, showing a displacement in position of the gelatin characteristic peaks. Thermal characterization was used to characterize the obtained films. Helix-coil transition and glass transition temperature were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). There is interaction between gelatin and TGS through hydrogen bond formation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to characterize the thermal stability of the composite films. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy, entropy, enthalpy and free energy for all the investigated samples were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations.

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Quantized variability of Earth’s magnetopause distance

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)105-110
Ramy Mawad, Mohamed Youssef, Shahinaz Yousef, Walid Abdel-Sattar

The size of the Magnetosphere is calculated during the period 1996-2011. It is discovered that the magnetopause distance D is quantized for D ≥ 8 RE. The magnetic levels are narrow towards the Earth but widely spaced outwards. This quantization disappears in the lower magnetosphere below 7 RE. Once the magnetopause is compressed to 8 -7 RE, multi doors get open which we call the Geomagnetic doors, and the solar wind is injected into the inner magnetosphere then to the ionosphere inducing SID and to the troposphere where it can cause flash floods and seeds of hurricanes

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Solar forcing on cyclones - case study: Gonu 2007

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)111-117
Shahinaz Yousef, M. A. El-Rafy, Huma Abdallah Thani Al Hadabi

This paper establishes the physical cause and effect relationships between solar stimuli and terrestrial responses. The solar stimuli in our case is a fast stream of solar wind emanated from a coronal hole. This stream got through the Earth's magnetosphere like a bullet and hit a particular spot of the troposphere above the Arabian Sea on 31 May 2007. There the protons, ions and electron energies were deposited and heated the atmosphere. The hot spot expanded and formed a low-pressure spot above the Sea thus accelerated evaporation. The electric charges in this particular spot act as nuclei for water condensation and formation of intense clouds. As a second step, solar wind streams hit the two polar atmospheres, inducing two surface Meridional wind velocities that moved equator wards. The northern wind and the southern winds met at the cloud spot over the Arabian Sea and formed a torque that caused the clouds to rotate about the central eye. Thus, Hurricane Gonu was fully developed on early June 2007. Thus, the stimuli is the coronal hole stream and the response is the hurricane.

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A revolutionary theory on the origin of the Moon

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)118-121
Shahinaz Yousef

So far, the theories of the origin of the moon are inadequate. There is no general agreement on any This paper brings to light a simple outstanding idea. The sun and the moon were once binary stars. Mass transfer occurred with the present sun gaining mass from the other star. Actually, the entire envelope of the other star was transferred to the present sun leaving the core of this companion. It is this core that cooled off and ended up as our moon. The face of the moon was cooled off abruptly while the back of the moon cooled gradually. This made the back of the moon almost free from Marias. We have to invoke another very important concept. The earth was created as an orphan planet. The binary suns system captured the earth as a circumbinary planet. Following mass transfer, the hot moon was captured by the earth and was locked in such a way that its near side always faced the earth. With both of the sun and the shinning hot moon, the earth experienced no night. The near side the moon was cooled off suddenly. This allowed night to occur on the earth. The far side of the moon cooled gradually and that made the observed discrepancy between the two faces of the moon. The very existence of He-3 on lunar surface, which is the product of fusion reactions inside the core of stars, is a clear-cut evidence that the moon is actually the core of a star. In addition, gamma ray photos of the moon show excessive illumination. This gamma ray is actually emanating from inside the moon as a byproduct of fusion reaction accompanying, He-3 production. An easy task to prove. In conclusion, When Armstrong stepped on the moon, he did not realize then that he actually walked on the cooled core of an ex star.

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On the solar stimuli that initiate Makkah Al-Mukaramah, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah and Jeddah flash floods

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)122-130
Shahinaz Yousef, Yasser h. O. Algafari, Ramy Mawad

Severe solar events manifested as highly energetic X-Ray events accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and proton flares caused flash floods in Makkah Al-Mukaramah, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah and Jeddah. In the case of the 20 January 2005 CME that initiated severe flash on the 22 of January. it is shown that the CME lowered the pressure in the polar region and extended the low-pressure regime to Saudi Arabia passing by the Mediterranean. Such passage accelerated evaporation and caused Cumulonimbus clouds to form and discharge flash floods over Makkah Al-Mukaramah. On the other hand, solar forcing due coronal holes have a different technique in initiating flash floods. The November 25, 2009 and the 13-15 January 2011 Jeddah flash floods are attributed to prompt events due to fast solar streams emanated from two coronal holes that arrived the Earth on 24 November 2009 and 13 January 2011. We present evidences that those streams penetrated the Earth's magnetosphere and hit the troposphere at the western part of the Red Sea, dissipated their energy at 925mb geopotential height and left two hot spots. It follows that the air in the hot spots expanded and developed spots of low-pressure air that spread over the Red Sea to its eastern coast. Accelerated evaporation due to reduced pressure caused quick formation of Cumulonimbus clouds that caused flash floods over Makkah Al-Mukaramah and Jeddah.

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Empirical CME-SSC listing model

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)130-136
Ramy Mawad, Hussein M. Farid, Mohamed Youssef, Shahinaz Yousef

The association listing of Coronal Mass Ejection-Storm Sudden Commencement (CME-SSC) events is the aim of this research. Certain criteria have been put to select the CME-SSC pair events automatically. The travel time of the CME shock could be estimated from an empirical equation that depends on spatial, temporal, CME angular width and projection effect conditions. A high correlation was found according to a certain algorithm between the initial speed and the travel time of the CME shock, R=0.81 with mean arrival time error 16.67 hours for 269 events during the period 1996-2010.

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Interactions in nuclear emulsion detector irradiated by a-particle

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)137-147
A. Abdelsalam, Z. Abou-moussa, W. Osman, B. M. Badawy, H. A. Amer, M. M. El-Ashmawy, N. Abdallah

Using the multiplicity characteristics of the final state hadron, the shower particles emitted in the 4-pspace through 4He interactions with emulsion nuclei are studied in a few A GeV region. Basing on a universality of state, the multiplicity distributions, in the backward hemisphere of the space, are determined as a function of the target size. The shower particle multiplicity, while found to depend only on the target size in the backward hemisphere, depends on both the energy and system size in the forward hemisphere. It is seen that the shower particles are originated from two emission sources. One of both emits pion in the backward hemisphere, beyond the kinematic limits, as a target source particle regarding the limiting fragmentation hypothesis. The other is the main source which emits pion in the forward hemisphere as a result of a particle creation system. The results are analyzed in the framework of the Lund Monte-Carlo program code-events generating FRITIOF model.

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Results on the scaling of multiplicity distributions of fast target fragments in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)148-154
A. Abdelsalam, S. Kamel, M. E. Hafiz, N. Sabry, N. Rashed

In this work the fast target fragments from high multiplicity interactions of 16O (at 60A GeV and 200A GeV) and 32S (at 3.7A and 200A GeV) ions with Ag (Br) targets have been measured. The characteristics of these interactions have been compared to those from simulations using the Modified FRITIOF Code. The comparison indicates that there is a need to modify the code and incorporate a greater amount of rescattering for a better fit to the experimental data. The multiplicity distributions for all interactions have been fitted well with the Gaussian distribution function. The measurements of the scaled variance (ω >1) show that the production of target fragments at high energies cannot be considered as a statistically independent process. The energy dependence of entropy is examined. The entropy values normalized to average multiplicity (S /< Ng >) are found to be energy independent. The possibility of scaling, i.e., similarity in the multiplicity distributions of grey tracks produced in nucleus-nucleus interactions has been examined. A simplified universal function has been used to display the experimental data. The relationship between the entropy, the average multiplicity and the KNO function is examined as well.

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Missing energy within helium emitted in AA collisions at high energies

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)155-161
M. S. El-Nagdy, A. Abdelsalam, B. M. Badawy

Using the multiplicity characteristics of the final state hadron, the shower particles emitted in the 4-pspace through 4He interactions with emulsion nuclei are studied in a few A GeV region. Basing on a universality of state, the multiplicity distributions, in the backward hemisphere of the space, are determined as a function of the target size. The shower particle multiplicity, while found to depend only on the target size in the backward hemisphere, depends on both the energy and system size in the forward hemisphere. It is seen that the shower particles are originated from two emission sources. One of both emits pion in the backward hemisphere, beyond the kinematic limits, as a target source particle regarding the limiting fragmentation hypothesis. The other is the main source which emits pion in the forward hemisphere as a result of a particle creation system. The results are analyzed in the framework of the Lund Monte-Carlo program code-events generating FRITIOF model.

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The energy dependence on the density depression parameter

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)162-173
M. Ismail, A. Y. Ellithi, M. M. Botros, Walaa M. T. Abd-Alaa

In this work the fast target fragments from high multiplicity interactions of 16O (at 60A GeV and 200A GeV) and 32S (at 3.7A and 200A GeV) ions with Ag (Br) targets have been measured. The characteristics of these interactions have been compared to those from simulations using the Modified FRITIOF Code. The comparison indicates that there is a need to modify the code and incorporate a greater amount of rescattering for a better fit to the experimental data. The multiplicity distributions for all interactions have been fitted well with the Gaussian distribution function. The measurements of the scaled variance (ω >1) show that the production of target fragments at high energies cannot be considered as a statistically independent process. The energy dependence of entropy is examined. The entropy values normalized to average multiplicity (S /< Ng >) are found to be energy independent. The possibility of scaling, i.e., similarity in the multiplicity distributions of grey tracks produced in nucleus-nucleus interactions has been examined. A simplified universal function has been used to display the experimental data. The relationship between the entropy, the average multiplicity and the KNO function is examined as well.

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Projectile fragmentation of 6,7Li nuclei in photoemulsion at Dubna energy

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)175-187
M. Ismail, A. Y. Ellithi, M. M. Botros, Walaa M. T. Abd-Alaa

A semi-microscopic approach based on Skyrme energy density functional is used to study the effect of the depression parameter (β) of the density distribution of protons and neutrons on the total energy of nuclei with proton number Z = 18, 114, 116 and 120. For each element, two isotopes are considered. The variation of the contribution of the total energy parts with the depression parameter is studied. For super heavy nuclei, the variation of the lowest total energy curve with β has a shallow minimum, which occurs at negative value of β, suggesting that, these nuclei prefer large values of density at of their centers, these nuclei gain about 15 MeV in their binding energies within the β range considered. For the lightest Ar nucleus, the minimum is clear and occurs at positive value of β

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STUDY OF OUR STAR THE SUN

U+1F5132014-12-19 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/MTPR/(14)188-199
Sultana N. Nahar

Our sun is studied extensively as it is the standard for a typical star. However, knowledge about the Sun still has large discrepancies. Recent determination of abundances of common elements such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, etc. are up to 30-50\% lower than the current standard values. Much of these discrepancies could be reduced if a fundamental quantity, the opacity of solar plasma, is revised upwards. Propagating radiation in plasmas is absorbed and emitted by the constituent elements that constitute the opacity effect. Recently measured opacities at the Sandia National Laboratory on the Z-pinch nuclear fusion device, under stellar interior conditions created on the Earth for the first time, are 30-400\% higher than predictions for the most crucial element Iron. Theoretically, new large-scale calculations under the Iron Opacity Project reveal the existence of extensive and dominant resonant features in high energy photoionization. I will illustrate these and discuss how their inclusion should provide more accurate opacities, and close the gap between observed and predicted opacities and elemental abundances in the Sun. This work was supported partially by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy.

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Transmyocardial Revascularization for Treating End Stage Coronary Artery Diseases

U+1F512
Amr Zaher, Sherif Abdelhady, Yousry Moustafa, Yehia Badr

Coronary artery disease remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. It is projected to be the leading cause of death in the developing world. Despite the success of current medical and surgical management of ischemic heart disease, a growing number of patients have diffuse obstructive coronary artery disease that is not amenable to coronary-artery bypass grafting or catheter-based interventions it is estimated that patients with ungraftable coronary artery disease account for approximately 5% of patients who undergo coronary angiography. This problem has stimulated interest in developing alternative therapeutic approaches. On a concept was based on the model of the reptilian heart, in which the left ventricle is directly perfused from endothelium-lined channels that radiate out from the left ventricular cavity. Mirhoseini and associates, advanced the concept by using laser energy to create the transmural channels. Subsequent clinical trials demonstrated that transmyocardial revascularization significantly improved angina in patients who were not candidates for conventional therapies such as bypass surgery, balloon angioplasty, or medical management.

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Production three Neutralinos from electron-positron annihilation via H0 and Z0 propagators

U+1F513 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)11-16
M. M. Ahmed

Production three neutralinos as the lightest supersymmetric particles (LSP) from the process in the framework of minimal Supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and calculated the cross-sections for this interaction. We consider Produce χ ̃_i^0 (P_2 )+χ ̃_j^0 (P_4 )+χ ̃_l^0 (P_5 ) by one group of Feynman diagram through and propagators (from 1- 48 situations). (Where i ,j = 1, 2, 3, 4, and l=1). The cross sections are calculated according to a carefully selected set of Supersymmetric parameters, and the values of the cross sections ( ) pb are taken as a function of the incident center of mass energy ( ) Gev. Consider the neutralino to be the candidates for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) or cold dark matter (CDM). The values of cross-sections are taken at ( ) ranges from 300 to 1400 GeV. The all different possible situations are graphed and tabulated. The best cross section value ( ) is 2.5x10-10 pb when the neutralinos masses are at m_(χ ̃_i^0 (P_2 ) )=600Gev, m_(χ ̃_j^0 (P_4 ) )=600Gev, m_(χ ̃_l^0 (P_5 ) )=300Gev.

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Production of Neutralino and Tow Higss Bosons from electron-positron annihilation via H0 and Z0 propagators

U+1F513 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)17-24
M. M. Ahmed, Asmaa A. A., and Zainab A. H.

Production three neutralinos as the lightest supersymmetric particles (LSP) from the process in the framework of minimal Supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and calculated the cross-sections for this interaction. We consider Produce χ ̃_i^0 (P_2 )+χ ̃_j^0 (P_4 )+χ ̃_l^0 (P_5 ) by one group of Feynman diagram through and propagators (from 1- 48 situations). (Where i ,j = 1, 2, 3, 4, and l=1). The cross sections are calculated according to a carefully selected set of Supersymmetric parameters, and the values of the cross sections ( ) pb are taken as a function of the incident center of mass energy ( ) Gev. Consider the neutralino to be the candidates for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) or cold dark matter (CDM). The values of cross-sections are taken at ( ) ranges from 300 to 1400 GeV. The all different possible situations are graphed and tabulated. The best cross section value ( ) is 2.5x10-10 pb when the neutralinos masses are at m_(χ ̃_i^0 (P_2 ) )=600Gev, m_(χ ̃_j^0 (P_4 ) )=600Gev, m_(χ ̃_l^0 (P_5 ) )=300Gev.

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Powerful explosion of the ultraviolet light

U+1F513 & doi: https://doi.org/10.19138/mtpr/(19)25-30
Kholmurad Khasanov

Schlieren Photography and Laser visualization helped us to detect in the atmosphere a field of constant ultraviolet explosions of light having power from hundred microwatt to one watt. Super-compression of ultraviolet in this field generates powerful explosions of light. The atmospheric ultraviolet explosions of light have the following characteristics: high frequency, wave super-compressibility and lacking power. The dynamic emitter of our design can transform lacking power atmospheric ultraviolet explosions into powerful explosions of the light from ten watt to thousand watt and more. The air, under the pressure of two-six bar comes in the dynamic emitter flows out and creates the supersonic jet. The interaction of the jet with low heat supply and the lacking power atmospheric ultraviolet explosions leads to focusing and super-compressing of the light wave, which calls powerful explosions of the ultraviolet light. These explosions carry out a nuclear decay, synthesize elements and porous nano materials. Recently, the Russian satellite Lomonosov, equipped with an ultraviolet telescope, recorded the powerful explosions of the light at an altitude of tens kilometers from the Earth. Russian scientists believe that explosions of the light in the atmosphere is a new physical phenomenon that modern science cannot explain yet. We assume that the powerful explosions of the light in the laboratory, the mechanism of which we present, as well as those fixed by the Russian satellite, are of the same physical nature.

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THE SOLAR SYSTEM IN THE AGE OF SPACE EXPLORATION

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0001
JAY M. PASACHOFF

We are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik, which began the space age. Though the manned exploration of the solar system has been limited to the Moon, in NASA's Apollo Program that ended over 35 years ago, robotic exploration of the solar system continues to be very successful. This paper explores the latest space mission and other observations of each planet and of each type of solar-system object, including dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, as well as the sun.

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The Iron Project: RADIATIVE ATOMIC PROCESSES IN ASTROPHYSICS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0002
SULTANA N. NAHAR

Astronomical objects, such as, stars, galaxies, blackhole environments, etc are studied through their spectra produced by various atomic processes in their plasmas. The positions, shifts, and strengths of the spectral lines provide information on physical processes with elements in all ionization states, and various diagnostics for temperature, density, distance, etc of these objects. With presence of a radiative source, such as a star, the astrophysical plasma is dominated by radiative atomic processes such as photoionization, electron-ion recombination, bound-bound transitions or photo-excitations and de-excitations. The relevant atomic parameters, such as photoionization cross sections, electron-ion recombination rate coefficients, oscillator strengths, radiative transition rates, rates for dielectronic satellite lines etc are needed to be highly accurate for precise diagnostics of physical conditions as well as accurate modeling, such as, for opacities of astrophysical plasmas. for opacities of astrophysical plasmas. This report illustrates detailed features of radiative atomic processes obtained from accurate ab initio methods of the latest developments in theoretical quantum mechanical calculations, especially under the international collaborations known as the Iron Project (IP) and the Opacity Project (OP). These projects aim in accurate study of radiative and collsional atomic processes of all astrophysically abundant atoms and ions, from hydrogen to nickel, and calculate stellar opacities and have resulted in a large number of atomic parameters for photoionization and radiative transition probabilities. The unified method, which is an extension of the OP and the IP, is a self-consistent treatment for the total electron-ion recombination and photoionization. It incorporates both the radiative and the dielectronic recombination processes and provides total recombination rates and level-specific recombination rates for hundreds of levels for a wide range of temperature of an ion. The recombination features are demonstrated. Calculations are carried out using the accurate and powerful R-matrix method in the close-coupling approximation. The relativistic fine structure effects are included in the Breit-Pauli approximation. The atomic data and opacities are available on-line from databases at CDS in France and at the Ohio Supercomputer Center in the USA. Some astrophysical applications of the results of the OP and IP from the Ohio State atomic-astrophysics group are also presented. These same studies, however with different elements, can be extended for bio-medical applications for treatments. This will also be explained with some preliminary findings.

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RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE Cs2 33Πg → b3Πu TRANSITION

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0003
DAN LI, FENG XIE and LI LI

Perturbation facilitated Infrared-Infrared double resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the triplet states of Cs2. The 33Πg state has been observed and rotationally resolved fluorescence spectra into the b3Πu state and the perturbed A1Σu+ levels have been recorded. Molecular constants of the b3Π0u and A1Σu+ states were derived from the fluorescence spectra.

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EFFECTS OF RARE EARTH OXIDES ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF Li-Zn NANOPARTICLE FERRITES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0004
M. A. AHMED, N. OKASHA, A. I. ALI, M. HAMMAM and J. Y. SONG

The spinel ferrite Li0.2Zn0.6LayFe2.2-yO4; 0.01 ≤ y ≤ 0.1 were prepared by the usual ceramic sintering technique. XRD confirmed the formation of the samples in single phase spinel structure for all the samples. The lattice parameters decreased with increasing the La-content. The d c resistivity was measured as a function of temperature. The obtained results indicate the semiconductor like behavior, where more than straight lines indicating the presence of different conductions mechanism exist. The density of states near Fremi level as a function of La-content and discussed based on the variable range hoping model. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were measured as a function of temprature and frequency. The dispersion peak at low frequency (10 kHz) was splitted by increasing La-content up to the suggested absorber splitting.

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A FIRST-PRINCIPLES CALCULATION OF THE MAGNETIC MOMENT AND ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE FOR SELECTED HALF-HEUSLER ALLOYS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0005
SAMY H. ALY, RIHAM SHAPARA and SHERIF YEHIA

Half-Heusler alloys are half-metallic magnets which may be defined as a new state of matter between insulating and metallic materials. These materials have many important applications in spintronics or magnetoelectronics devices. We have done first-principles (ab-initio) calculation of the magnetic moment and electronic structure for selected half-Heusler compounds. All the calculations were performed using the DFT-based electronic structure packages FPLO and WIEN2K. Half-metallicity (e.g. NiMnSb and RhVSb), semiconducting (e.g. FeVSb and NiVAl) and fully-metallic (e.g. NiVTe) behavior have been found in the compounds studied.

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A FIRST-PRINCIPLES CALCULATION OF THE ELECTRONIC STRUCUTRE, MAGNETIC MOMENT AND SPIN-DENSITY FOR SELECTED FULL-HEUSLER ALLOYS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0006
SHERIF YEHIA, M. M. AHMED, M. HAMMAM, MONA A. AHMED and SAMY H. ALY

Full-Heusler alloys are half-metallic materials which may be defined as a new state of matter between the insulating and metallic states. These materials have many important applications in spintronics or magnetoelectronic devices. We have done first-principles (ab-initio) calculation of the electronic structure, magnetic moment and spin density-maps for selected full-Heusler compounds. All the calculations were performed using the DFT-based electronic structure package WIEN2K. Half-metallicity (e.g. Co2Vga), nearly half metallic (e.g. Co2TiGa) and fully-metallic (e.g.Co2MnGa) behavior have been found in the compounds studied.

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MAGNETIC SUPER-EXCHANGE INTERACTION AND STRUCTURE OF COPPER(II) 1, 4 BUTYLENEDIAMINE TETRACHLORIDE [NH3(CH2)4H3N]CuCl4 SINGLE CRYSTAL

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0007
M.A. AHMED, I.S. AHMED FARAG and NABILAH M. HELMY

Butylene diamine copper tetrachloride was prepared in a form of crystal form from aqueous solution. X-ray of single crystal and magnetic properties studies were carried out, The structure of the neutral complex [NH3(CH2)4H3N]CuCl4 contains cationic [NH3(CH2)4H3N]2+ and anionic (CuCl4)2-. Results of X-ray revealed that the Cu atoms are 4-fold coordinated by chlorine atoms to form distorted square planer. The organic group is bonded with CuCl4 hydrogen bonds and Van der Waal contact. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility was measured in the temperature range from 70 to 500K at different magnetic field intensities. The results indicate that the complexes exhibit weak antiferromagnetic coupling between two metal ions.

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RESONANT TRANSFER EXCITATION CROSS SECTIONS FOR PHOSPHORUS IONS WITH K-SHELL EXCITATION

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0008
H. HANAFY, G. OMAR and F. SHAHIN

Resonant charge transfer and excitation (RTE) is an interesting process in ion-atom (I/A) collisions, which proceed through the formation of doubly-excited (d) states. If d-states stabilize by emission of x-rays, the sub-process is known as RTEX. This RTEX process is responsible for self cooling and ionization balance in thermal astrophysical and laboratory plasma. In fact, some intensive and extensive theoretical and experimental works have been done. However, many works still needed to understand the intricacies and the trends of this process for various isoelectronic and isonuclear sequences. The RTEX process in I/A collisions is identical to the dielectronic recombination (DR) in electron-ion (e/I) collisions. The DR and RTEX cross sections have been proved, Brandt (1983), that they are mathematically related. In the present work, The RTEX cross sections are calculated for the collision of P5+, 8+, 11+ ions with H2/He targets, in case of K-shell excitation. It is found that, the peak values of σRTEX are 2.58×l0-21 cm2, 2.82×10-21 cm2 and 3.02×10-21 cm2 at projectile energies 119.10 MeV, 118.13 MeV and 108.74 MeV for P5++H2, P8++H2 and P11++H2 collisions, respectively.

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INVESTIGATION OF THE DEVELOPED PRECIPITATES IN AlMgSiCu ALLOYS WITH AND WITHOUT EXCESS Si

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0009
E. F. ABO ZEID

The effect of temperature on the sequence of hardening precipitates in Al-1.15 Mg2Si-0.34Cu (wt %) balanced containing Cu and Al-1.14Mg2Si-0.34Cu balanced containing Cu with Si in excess alloys has been investigated by hardness measurement (HV), differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The values of the hardness number which corresponding to the hardening precipitated particles in the alloy containing Si in excess are higher than that in the alloy without Si. The results showed that, the difference in the hardening precipitation peaks positions may match the fact that, the excess Si increases the density of β‶ metastable phase and also, reduces the Mg/Si ratios in the early stage of GP zones and co-clusters formation. After the complete formation of the metastable needle shaped precipitates β‶ is taken place the strengthening of the alloy would take place as a result of the formation of the semi-coherent rod shaped precipitates β‵ and/or Q‵ phases.

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EVIDENCE OF JAHN-TELLER DISTORTION and PHASE SEPARATION IN Ca DOPED LaMnO3

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0010
M. A. AHMED and S. I. EL-DEK

A series of Ca doped LaMnO3 (La1-xCaxMnO3; 0.10≤x≤0.50) was prepared using conventional solid-state reaction. IR spectroscopic analysis was carried out for all samples. All investigated samples were ferromagnetic with the Curie temperature increasing with Ca content. The experimentally calculated values of the effective magnetic moment agree well with those computed theoretically. The largest value of the magnetic susceptibility as well as magnetic moment was achieved at x=0.30 pointing to a typical ferromagnetic character. The hysteresis which appeared in the magnetization during heating and cooling runs for the sample with x=0.30 enhances the choice of the sample x=0.30 as the optimum Ca content.

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ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION MECHANISM AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL ACETATE AND CELLULOSE ACETATE PROPIONATE BLENDS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0011
F. H. ABD EL-KADER, A. M. SHEHAP, A. F. BASHA and N. H. EL-FEWATY

Films of Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) homopolymers and their blends of compositions 0.85/0.15, 0.7/0.3, 0.5/0.5, 0.3/0.7 and 0.15/0.85 (wt/wt) were prepared to investigate the type of electrical conduction mechanism. The current-voltage characteristics have been studied under different conditions. Also, ultraviolet/visible spectra of all samples have been studied according to their different composition ratios. The conduction mechanisms at different temperatures and voltage ranges appear to be essentially a space charge limited current for the two individual polymers, while for the blend samples the predominance mechanism is Poole-Frenkel type. Ultraviolet/visible studies of the investigated samples showed that the blend sample of 0.5/0.5 (wt/wt) has the smallest absorption edge (4.58 eV) and highest band tail (0.61 eV). The composition blend sample 0.5/0.5 (wt/wt) has the most proper conduction and optical properties which has attractive attention in the view of its application in electronic and optical devices.

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STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES AND JAHN–TELLER DISTORTION IN R0.7Ca0.3Mn0.95Fe0.05O3 PEROVSKITES BY MÖSSBAUER EFFECT

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0013
E. K. ABDEL-KHALEK, W. M. EL-MELIGY, E. A. MOHAMED, T. Z. AMER and H. A. SALLAM

In this work structural, magnetic and electrical properties of R0.7Ca0.3Mn0.95Fe0.05O3 (R= Pr and Nd) perovskite manganites are presented. Structural characterization of these compounds shows that both have orthorhombic (Pbmn) phase. The Mössbauer spectra show clear evidence of the local structural distortion of the Mn(Fe)O6 octahedron on the basis of non-zero nuclear quadrupole interactions for high-spin Fe3+ ions. It was found that the local structural distortion decreases significantly with replacing Pr3+ by Nd3+. This replacing dependence of the Jahn–Teller coupling strength estimated from the Mössbauer results was found to be consistent with the electrical and magnetic properties.

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ELECTRONIC BAND STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF YCo5

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0014
SAMY H. ALY, FATEMA ALZAHRAA HASSAN and SHERIF YEHIA

We present a first-principles study on the magnetic properties and electronic structure of YCo5 using the two well-known electronic structure packages FPLO and WIEN2k. Our results have been compared with the results of experiments and other ab initio calculations. The comparison shows a fair agreement between the present work and other published investigations.

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INFLUENCE OF ZINC SUBSTITUTION ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF Co-La FERRITE

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0015
M. A. AHMED and N. OKASHA

Co-Zn substituted ferrites with the formula Co1-xZnxLa0.025Fe1.975O4 with 0.1≤x ≤0.9 was prepared by conventional solid state reaction. X- ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and magnetic susceptibility (χ) are utilized in order to study the effect of variation in Zn content and its impact on crystal structure, magnetic properties such as (χ), Curie temperature (TC), and exchange interaction constant (J) between the different cations. The results of XRD reveal that, assured the single phase cubic spinel structure for all investigated samples with appearance of small peaks represented a secondary phase due to the presence of rare earth (La3+) ions. The particle size (t) varied with composition and heat treatment. The value of both TC and J decreases with increasing Zn content up to the critical concentration (0.5) then increases. The scanning electron micrographs indicate the distribution of grains in the sample with uniform size and agree well with the results of X- ray analyses. The influence of rare earth ions substitution on the structure and magnetic properties was examined.

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ROLE OF Cu2+ CONCENTRATION ON THE STRUCTURAL, SPECTROSCOPIC AND MAGNETIC PARAMETERS OF Y3+ SUBSTITUTED Ni-Zn FERRITE

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0016
M. A. AHMED, M. M. EL-SAYED and S. I. EL-DEK

The samples under investigation of the formula Ni0.7Zn0.3CuzY0.01Fe1.99-zO4; 0≤z≤0.1 were prepared using standard ceramic technique from pure analar oxides (BDH). IR spectroscopic analysis has been carried out for all samples. The magnetic susceptibility for the samples was performed using Faraday's method as a function of temperature and magnetic field intensities. The data were interpreted in view of the exchange interaction constant that takes place between the different cations. Variation of TC with Cu content in the samples was observed.

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EFFECTS OF RARE EARTH IONS ON THE QUALITY AND THE MAGNETIC PROPERTES OF Ag-FERRITES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0017
M. A. AHMED and N. OKASHA

A set of compounds with the formula MgAg0.4R0.2Fe1.4O4 where R is Lanthanum (La3+), Terbium (Tb3+), and Yttrium (Y3+), were prepared by the flash combustion technique. The effect of rare earths ions on some properties of silver doped was investigated. The obtained data indicated that, by introducing a relatively small amount of rare earths ions instead of Fe2O3 ions, an important modification of both the structure and the magnetic properties can be obtained. The Curie temperature, effective magnetic moment and exchange interaction are affected by these substitutions. The effect of rare earth ions were explained both by their partial diffusion in the spinel lattice and by the formation of the crystalline secondary phase on the grain boundaries.

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VACUUM TECHNOLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION-AN UPDATE

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0018
H. M. AKRAM and H. RASHID

Vacuum technology has been vital for the progress in almost every field of modern industrial & scientific research and technological developments. Research in this field is therefore important for the rapid progress in other sophisticated technologies. The modern society require precise know-how of vacuum metrology for its complex and sophisticated manufacturing processes and research activities. Accuracy in vacuum measurements is therefore an essential need for every application. The required accuracy is achieved with the help of well-calibrated vacuum gauges and this is possible only, if there exist proper vacuum standards of required range and accuracy. In this paper, a brief review of recently developed different vacuum standards, namely Standard Mercury Manometer, Standard Volume Expansion System and Standard Orifice Flow System will be presented, employed for the calibration of low, medium and high vacuum gauges respectively. Our recently developed standards are simple in design, least in vibration & degassing rate with desired accuracy, ease of operation and cost effective.

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THE INTERACTION OF HIGH DENSITY SHORT PULSE LASER WITH MATTER

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0019
LOTFIA EL NADI and MAGDY M. OMAR

The study of the interaction of High Density Short Pulse (HDSP) lasers with matter is an important rapidly expanding branch of Physics. Since 1985 these lasers have been developed to generate very short pulses with typical high performance parameters: peak powers up to hundreds of TW, pulse duration less than 20 fs, pulse energy more than 2J, repetition rate up to 10 Hz and wavelength of 800nm that could be lowered through higher harmonic generation. When such photons are properly focused on a target, creation of simultaneous unprecedented conditions in the laboratories within very short time takes place, namely: brightness up to 1020 W/cm2, electric fields up to 1011 V/cm, magnetic fields up to 109 gauss, temperatures of the order of 1012 °K, pressures ~109 bars and acceleration of up to 1026cm/s2. These conditions could definitely initiate severe nonlinearities within the exposed materials. The main objective of this paper is to review the studies on particle generation, particularly neutrons, by the interaction of high intensity lasers with solid or gas targets. Then propose their possible applications.

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ELASTIC BACKSCATTER LIDAR SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO IMPROVEMENT FOR DAYLIGHT OPERATIONS: POLARIZATION SELECTION AND AUTOMATION

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0020
YASSER Y. HASSEBO and KHALED ELSAYED

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) improvements is one of the important issue in lidar measurements, particularly for lidar daytime operations. Skylight background noise precincts lidar daytime operations and disturbs the measurement sensitivity. In the past, polarization selective lidar systems have been used mostly for separating and analyzing polarization of lidar returns for a variety of purposes. A polarization discrimination technique was proposed to maximize lidar detected SNR taking advantage of the natural polarization properties of scattered skylight radiation to track and minimize detected sky background noise (BGS). In our previous work this tracking technique was achieved by rotating, manually, a combination of polarizer and analyzer on both the lidar transmitter and receiver subsystems, respectively. Minimum BGS take place at polarization orientation that follows the solar azimuth angle, even for high aerosol loading. In this article, we report a design to automate the polarization discrimination technique by real time tracking of the azimuth angle to attain the maximum lidar SNR. Using an appropriate control system, it would then be possible to track the minimum BGS by rotating the detector analyzer and the transmission polarizer simultaneously, achieving the same manually obtained results. Analytical results for New York City are summarized and an approach for applying the proposed design globally is investigated.

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ANALYSIS OF PLASMA PRODUCED BY LASERABLATION FOR COPPER

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0021
A. I. REFAIE, I. EL GHAZALI, S. H. ALLAM and Th. M. EL SHERBINI

A time-resolved diagnostic technique was used to investigate the emission spectra from the copper plasma produced by the high power Q-switched Nd : YAG laser that generates 670 mJ pulses in 6 ns of duration at a frequency 10 Hz and 1064 nm pulse-laser ablation in air. Spectroscopic measurements were devoted to determine the plasma temperature by using Boltzmann plot for the spectral lines of Cu I which are free from self-absorption. Electron number density was also deduced from the stark broadening measurements for different delay times (0.5-10 μs) under the assumption of local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE). Branching ratios for the some experimental relative transition probabilities have been determined. Calculations with a relativistic Hartree-Fock wavefunctions have been carried out for Cu II in order to place the experimental data on an absolute scale. The Results are compared with that measured and with the available data in literature.

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PREPARATION OF GaN NANOSTRUCTURES BY LASER ABLATION OF Ga METAL

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0022
LOTFIA EL NADI, MAGDY M. OMAR, GALILA A. MEHENA and HUSSIEN M. A. MONIEM

In the present study, GaN nanodots (0D) and nanowires (1D) nanostructures were prepared on stainless steal substrates applying laser ablation technique. The target of Ga metal mixed with NaNO2 was introduced in a central bore of a graphite rod of a confined geometry set up. The laser beam was normally focused onto the central bore and the ablated plume of Ga metal was deposited on stainless steal substrate lying below the graphite rod in an atmosphere of slow flow of nitrogen gas with or without ammonia vapor. The pulsed N2 laser beam having a wavelength of 337± 2 nm, pulse duration 15±1 ns and energy per pulse of 15±1 m J, could be focused on the central bore by a cylindrical quartz lens to a spot of dimensions 500 × 700 μm2 t providing target irradiance of 0.2-0.3 GW/cm2 per pulse. The ablated plum was collected after several thousand laser shots. The morphology and structure of the formed nanostructures were investigated by Scanning electron microscope and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The growth mechanism is most likely by Solid-Liquid-Vapor phase during the laser ablation processes. The role of the carbon, the NaNO2 and the flowing gas on the growth of Nanostructures of GaN are discussed.

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LASER-INDUCED BREAKDOWN SPECTROSCOPY TECHNIQUE IN IDENTIFICATION OF ANCIENT CERAMICS BODIES AND GLAZES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0023
KHALED ELSAYED, HISHAM IMAM, FATMA MADKOUR, GALILA MEHEINA and YOSR GAMAL

In this paper we report a study on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a promising non-destructive technique for the identification of the colored glazes, and clay's bodies of Fatimid ceramics ancient artifacts. The scientific examination of ceramics may be helpful in unraveling the history of ancient shards, particularly as the process of its production such as firing condition and temperatures. The analysis of pottery, ceramic bodies and glazed coatings is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece. Revealing the technical skills of ancient potters has been one of the most important issues for gaining a deep insight of bygone culture and also it is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece of art. LIBS measurements were carried out by focusing a Nd-YAG laser at 1064 nm with pulse width of 10 ns and 50 mJ pulse energy on the surface of the sample by a 100-mm focal length lens. The plasma emission was collected by telescopic system and transferred through a fiber to Echelle spectrometer attached to an ICCD camera. The focal spot diameter is found to be in the range of 100-150 μm. which is small enough to consider this technique as a non-destructive technique. LIBS technique clarified that each piece of archaeological objects has its own finger print. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out on these archaeological ceramic body samples to study raw materials such as clays, which allowed the investigation of the crystal structure and showed the changes in its structure through firing process. This provided information on the ceramic characteristic and composition of the ceramic bodies.

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THERMAL STABILITY AND INFRARED-TO-VISIBLE UPCONVERSION EMISSIONS OF Er3+/Yb3+ CO-DOPED 70GeO2-20PbO-10K2O GLASSES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0024
SAMAH M. AHMED, I. SHALTOUT and Y. BADR

Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped potassium-lead-germanate (70GeO2-20PbO-10K2O) glasses with a fixed concentration of Er3+ ions (0.5 mol. %) and different concentrations of Yb3+ ions (0, 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mol. %), have been synthesized by the conventional melting and quenching method. The structure and vibrational modes of the glass network were investigated by the infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy. The thermal behavior of all glass samples was investigated by the differential thermal analysis. Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion process was investigated in all glasses. Intense green and red upconversion emission bands centered at around 532, 546, and 655 nm were observed, underallglasses.Intense excitation at 980 nm of diode laser at room temperature. The dependence of these emissions on the excitation power was investigated.

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EFFECT OF HOST MEDIUM ON THE FLUORESCENCE EMISSION INTENSITY OF RHODAMINE B IN LIQUID AND SOLID PHASE

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0025
M. FIKRY, M. M. OMAR and LOTFI Z. ISMAIL

In this work, we study the effect of concentration, host medium, PH, ions complex and phase states on the fluorescence emission from the laser dye, Rhodamine B, pumping by UV laser as exited source. The polymethylmethacrylate PMMA used as host medium in case of solid phase samples while, ethanol and Tetrahydrofuran (THF) are used in case of liquid one. The Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique was used to study the fluorescence properties of the both cases liquid and thin film solid-state samples. In addition, the Dual Thermal Lens (DTL) technique was used to study the quantum yield of these samples. The maximum fluorescence emission observed at concentration of Rhodamine B C=3×10-4M. At this concentration of Rhodamine B, the type of solvent and polarity of the medium affect on the fluorescence emission intensity of Rhodamine B with. The measurements revile that, the behavior of both phases state was analogous and Rhodamine B/PMMA thin film sample by ratio of 4:1 and thickness 0.12 mm is the best photostability sample and its quantum yield about ≈ 0.82. Also, the fluorescence emission intensity of Rhodamine B was quenched by complex formation of Co, Al, Cu and iodide ions with Rhodamine B due to the increase of the charge density of the ions.

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LOW TEMPERATURE PHOTOLUMINESCENCE AND PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY OF ZnSexTe1-x TERNARY ALLOYS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0026
A. SALAH, G. ABDEL FATTAH, I.K. ELZAWAWY and Y. BADR

We investigated Low-Temperature Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnSexTe1-x were grown from the melt where 0≤x≤0.202, the spectra of ZnSexTe1-x showing a broad band which may be attributed to self activated emission, The broad self activated (SA) emission band have been assigned to various crystalline defects, such as dislocations and vacancies or their combination with impurities. The room temperature photoelectric response spectra of ZnSexTe1-x samples (0≤x≤1) were measured, a single band was observed in the band edge region which attributed to the generation of more number of free charge carriers in the band gap region. The relaxation time was determined from studying the kinetics of photoconductivity

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OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF Ga OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0027
LOTFIA EL NADI, GALILA ABDELATIF, HUSSEIN M. MONIEM and MAGDY M. OMAR

Gallium oxide nanodots of diameter 300 to 220 nm have been grown by SiO2 assisted thermal evaporation. The formed grayish white crust deposited on the crucible walls was proved to be crystalline Ga2O3 through X-ray diffraction and TEM electron diffraction. The morphology of the samples examined by SEM, confirmed the nanodot structure formation of averag diameter 220 ± 30 nm and average density of 1.77×108 cm-2. The absorption spectra of the Ga2O3 suspension in DMF solution revealed two absorption peaks at 329.99nm (3.76 eV) and 338.60 nm (3.67 eV). Photoemission of blue light at room temperature was observed at 410.3 nm with FWHM 56.7 nm under excitation by 330.00 nm. The growth mechanism of the nanodots is explained in terms of liquid-vapor-solid mechanism (LVS). The remaining hard ingot was found to have 16.6 Vicker's hardness. The silicon glass having the value of Vicker's hardness 15 indicates that the ingot material is 10 % harder than that of glass.

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LASER CLEANING OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL INORGANIC MATERIALS WITH TRADITIONAL METHODS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0028
HISHAM IMAM, KHALED ELSAYED and FATMA MADKOUR

Ancient artifacts excavated from archaeological site were covered with different soil contaminates and stains which changed their chemical composition and aesthetic appearance. Ancient inorganic materials such as bronze, glass and pottery covered with different contaminates such as corrosion products, soil deposits, organic stains and gray white encrustations. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. In the present work we investigated in a general way the laser cleaning of bronze corrosion products, glass, and pottery by Q-switched Nd:YAG Lasers. The results were compared with conventional methods. The artifact samples were examined by Light Optical Microscope (LOM) and showed no noticeable damage.

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ASTHMA EARLY WARNING SYSTEM IN NEW YORK CITY (AEWSNYC) USING REMOTE SENSING APPROACHES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0029
YASSER HASSEBO and ZAHIDUR RAHMAN

Asthma is estimated to affect approximately 17.3 million Americans, including 5 million children less than 18 years of age. Of these 5 million children, 1.3 million are less than 5 years of age. Asthma is a major public health problem in NYC particularly in Bronx. 12.5% of new Yorkers have been diagnosed with asthma. 300,000 children in NYC have been diagnosed with asthma up to year of 2000. NYC children were almost twice as likely to be hospitalized due to asthma attacks as the average of US child in 2000. Queens county's diesel pollution risk ranks as the 10th unhealthiest in the US compared to over than 3000 counties. Asthma symptoms are consistent with exposure to a high level of a respiratory irritant gas, smoke fume, vapor, aerosol, particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and dust. Some types these environmental gaseous such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) can exacerbate preexisting respiratory symptoms in the short-term. Control of air pollution related diseases such as asthma, cancer, and bronchitis is difficult and inefficient due to the uncertainty in the air pollution transportation. Asthma control relies on air pollution detection and reduction. Asthma control can be improved by applying spatial tools such as Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The project long-term goal is to develop a model to predict an Asthma Early Warning System for NYC (AEWSNYC), using two approaches: (1) satellite data error correction collaboratively with (2) Ground-based multiwavelength lidar measurements and NASA back trajectory tools. The proposed method can be used to create an efficient asthma control model globally.

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DO WE EXPECT A MULTIPLE DIP STRUCTURE AT LHC ENERGIES?

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0030
FAZAL-E-ALEEM, HARIS RASHID and SOHAIL AFZAL TAHIR

Besides other parameters, measurements are also planned for differential cross section at Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Shrinkage of the diffraction peak and dip structure in the differential cross section are amongst the agenda of measurements at TOTEM Experiment. Many theoretical models predict multiple dip structure at LHC energy. We briefly review the status of shrinkage phenomena and possibility or otherwise of a multiple dip structure in the light of Geometrical models. A comparison has been made with the predictions of other models. We have also undertaken the role of rho (ρ) in the appearance or otherwise of multiple structure. In order to have a better understanding of the evolution of dip structure, we will also include the measurements from PP2PP at RHIC.

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SEARCH ON e+ - e- PAIR AND OBSERVATION OF A NEW LIGHT NEUTRAL BOSON

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0031
M. S. EL-NAGDY, A. ABDELSALAM and B. M. BADAWY

We present a unified description of e+ e- dilepton production in heavy ion collisions at relativistic (3.7A GeV) and ultrarelativistic (200A GeV) energies. From the interactions of [12C and 22Ne] at 3.7A GeV and 32S at 200A GeV with nuclear emulsion, 134 e+ e- pairs are observed. The differential distribution of the energy asymmetry of pairs is compared to a background observation at Bristol. The events are consistent in a way that, they scale well in a single curve of exponential decay. This ensures correct asymptotics and provides a unified description of mesonic decay. The existence of light neutral boson of mass (1.55±0.14 MeV/c2) is questionable, because the candidate peak is seen in the invariant mass spectrum of its decay into e+ e- pairs. The data seem to suggest the production and subsequent decay of short lived neutral boson with lifetime of the order of 10-16 S.

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THE MOVING QUASARS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0032
SHAHINAZ YOUSEF, M. KAMAL, H. MANSOUR, SAYEDA, M. AMIN, KHADIGA ABDER RAHMAN and AL HASSAN ABD AL MONEM

Quasars, those very far objects with very high proper motions implying that their transverse velocities far exceed the velocity of light. Their space velocities are superluminal and are within a fraction of a degree from their transverse velocities. We propose that QSOs form a cloud that envelopes the cosmos. We refer to this cloud as Al Tareq Cloud. The jets although mildly superluminal may force the QSO forward opposite to the jet ejection direction. Jets also help in changing the moving direction of the QSO. In other words, jets help in speeding up and maneuvering the QSO. There are tw belts of Quasars; The inner Quasar Belt at Z= (0.25-0.4) and the Outer Quasar Belt at Z = (1.8-2.25). From the present Quasar study, there is an indication that the preliminary age of the universre is of the order 46-49 Gyrs.

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ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY – SOME RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0033
MUNAWAR IQBAL and FAZAL-E-ALEEM

Electron beam technology has been in focus since long due to wide variety of applications in research and industry. One of the important modes of e-beam production is through thermionic emission. Improvements and advancement in enhancing the capabilities of electron beam sources compatible with the task to be accomplished at a reduced cost are therefore necessary. We give an update of the recently developed and reported e-guns which are easy to fabricate, assemble and more efficient. Besides being cost effective, these guns are user friendly.

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STUDY OF TARGET FRAGMENTATION IN HEAVY ION INTERACTIONS AT 3.7A GeV

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0034
A. ABDELSALAM, N. RASHED, B. M. BADAWY and E. EL–FALAKY

We report the experimental measurements of the multiplicity and angular distributions of the target associated particles (grey and black) produced in the interactions of (p, 3He, 4He, 6Li, 12C, 22Ne, and 28Si) with emulsion nuclei at nearly the same incident energy (3.7A GeV). The average values of the emitted grey and black particles increase with increasing target size. They are found to be dependent on the impact parameter of the interaction. The multiplicity and angular distributions reach asymptotic behavior with anisotropy factor (F/B)g,b. This factor seems to be independent of the projectile and target masses as well as the impact parameter. The experimental angular distributions are analyzed in the framework of the modified Maxwell – Boltzman distributions. The results yield quite interesting information regarding the mechanism of target fragments production in the backward hemisphere. The (F/B)g,b ratios are good parameters to calculate the temperature of the systems emitting grey and black particles.

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SOLAR INDUCED CLIMATE CHANGES AND COOLING OF THE EARTH

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0035
SHAHINAZ M. YOUSEF

Evidences are given for the cooling effect induced by solar weak cycles. It is forecasted that the coming solar cycle number 24, which has started on January 2008, would be very weak. This cycle would be followed by several weak cycles. Its very start on January 2008 have induced a climate change that forced global cooling, Indeed all global temperature monitors have shown temperature drops. The GISS monitor showed a 0.75°C drop between January 2007 and January 2008. This sharp temperature drop characterizes cooling induced by weak cycles as was evident by historical temperature records. It also happened in the right exact timing of the start of cycle 24. This cooling is real and could last for some time. The cooling well width is location dependant. Last January cooling left many countries in deep freeze. Cooling is very serious and can destroy crops and cause famines. This cooling is instrumentally recorded. This is an appeal to scientists to consider the present cooling seriously, after all the truth ought to be followed. Alert is also given to the reaponsible authorities to work promptly to choose the proper crops that can tolerate the cold otherwise it would be a disaster worldwide.

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CROSS-SECTIONS CALCULATIONS FOR PRODUCING PAIR HIGGS BOSONS AND NEUTRALINO VIA THREE NEUTRAL HIGGS BOSON PROPAGATORS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0036
M. M. AHMED

The production cross-sections calculations for the process . Where represent the three neutral Higgs bosons, are calculated through all the allowed modes of interactions. Which are (1296) situations are consider in two different groups of Feynman diagrams are taken into account. (1) Production of from and Z0 propagators exchange (from 1-864 Feynman diagrams). (2) Production of from propagators and the neutralino is leg (from 865-1296 Feynman diagrams). where (i, j = 1,2,3, and ℓ = 1,2,3,4) The values of the cross sections σ are taken as a function of the incident center of mass energy S. The values of the cross-sections have greatest values at S ranges from 3000 to 3400 GeV., and the against cross section is from rang 2.5 × 10-10-4 × 10-10, and the best calculations have numbers from 865-1080, where the production mechanisms can be detected in mode when the neutralino is leg from positron.

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THE PRODUCTION CROSS-SECTIONS FOR THE PROCESS formula e+ (P1) +e-(P3) -> H+2<(P2) + H-2(P4)+X02(P5)

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0037
M. M. AHMED, M. H. NOUS, SHERIF YEHIA and A. A. ASMAA

The cross-section, in electron (e-) positron (e+) collision, are calculated over range of center of mass energy for the process. Four different group of Feynman diagrams are taken into consideration depending on the type of the propagator: i - Production of χ0 and H± when z0 and H0 are the propagators exchange. ii - Production of χ0 and H± when χ0 is a leg from electron or positron, and γ is the propagator. iii - Production of χ0 and H± when χ0 is a leg from electron and positron, and Z0 is the propagator. iv - Production of χ0 and H± when χ0 is a leg from electron or positron, and H0 is the propagator. Where (i, j = 1,2,3, and = 1,2,3,4) The cross section for each group is calculated according to a carefully selected set of parameters. These different possible (1155) situations are graphed and tabulated. The production mechanisms can be detected as:

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AN EARLIER NATURAL MECHANISM PROPOSAL FOR THE CLOSURE OF THE OZONE HOLE AND THE PRESENT 30% CLOSURE

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814317511_0038
SHAHINAZ M. YOUSEF, SIHAM A. AL-KUHAIMI and AISHA BEBARS

A prolonged period of reduced solar activity of the order of few decades is expected owing to the presence of weak solar cycles series like those around 1800 and 1900 AD. Reduced UV flux is forecasted. The multitude of phytoplanktons in the Antarctic Ocean which are harmed by excessive UV passing through the ozone hole are expected to recover owing to the reduced solar UV doze even with the existence of ozone hole. An increase of only 10% of the phytoplankton would remove about 5 Gigatons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere annually (which is equal to the amount of carbon dioxide emitted currently by fossil fuel utilization) and sink it into the ocean. Reduction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere will lead to cooling of the troposphere and hence warming of Antarctic stratospheric clouds which are the sight of ozone destruction. Eventually, this procedure will hopefully lead to Antarctic ozone hole closure. The paper also discuss the implication of the 1997 solar induced climate change on the appearance of the Arctic ozone hole and the reduction of the Antarctic ozone hole. Anther more serious solar indsolarinduced climate change is currently on due to the end of the first weak solar cycle number 23 and the start of predicated second weaker solar cycle number 24. A climate change, which has already brought global cooling to the earth. The Ozone hole has been closed by 30% in 2007 as prdicted which a triumph is for the subject of sun-Earth connections. It is also predicted that further closures in the coming few years will occur due to solar induced climate changes. The forecast of the ozone hole closure was predicted in earlier papers.

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THE VARIATION OF THE SOLAR DIAMETER AND IRRADIANCE: ECLIPSE OBSERVATION OF JULY 11, 2010

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0001
SERGE KOUTCHMY, CYRIL BAZIN, JEAN-YVES PRADO, PHILIPPE LAMY and PATRICK ROCHER

The variation of the solar diameter is the subject of hot debates due to the possible effect on the Earth climate and also due to different interpretations of long period solar variabilities, including the total irradiance. We shortly review the topic and show that rather long term variations, corresponding to a length well over a solar magnetic cycle, are interesting to consider. The very recently launched mission “Picard” is entirely devoted to the topic but will just permit a short term evaluation. At the time of the last solar total eclipse of 11/7/2010, several experiments were prepared to precisely measure the transit time of the Moon related to the precise value of the solar diameter. Preliminary results coming from the use of a specially designed CNES photometer, put on different atolls of the French Polynesia, are presented. In addition the results of new experiments devoted to fast observations of flash spectra, including their precise chrono-dating, are illustrated and discussed. A new definition of the edge of the Sun, free of spurious scattered light effects strongly affecting all out of eclipse evaluations, is emerging from these observations, in agreement with the most advanced attempts of modeling the outer layers of the photosphere. We also argue for a definite answer concerning the solar diameter measurement from eclipses based on a better precision of lunar profiles coming from lunar altimetry space experiments which will be possible in the following decades.

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Photo-excitation and Photoionization for Plasma Opacities under the Iron Project

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0002
Sultana N. Nahar

Opacity gives a measure of radiation transport in a medium such that higher or lower opacity indicates more or less attenuation of radiation. As the radiation propagates, opacity is caused by the absorption and emission of radiation by the constituent elements in the medium, such as astrophysical plasmas. It is also affected by photon scatterings. Hence opacity depends mainly on the intrinsic atomic processes, photo-excitation in a bound-bound transition, photoionization in a bound-free transition, and photon-electron scattering. Monochromatic opacity at a particular frequency, κ(ν), is obtained mainly from oscillator strengths (f) and photoionization cross sections (σPI). However, the total monochromatic opacity is obtained from summed contributions of all possible transitions from all ionization stages of all elements in the source. Calculation of accurate parameters for such a large number of transitions has been the main problem for obtaining accurate opacities. The overal mean opacity, such as Rosseland mean opacity (κR), depends also on the physical conditions, such as temperature and density, elemental abundances and equation of state such as local thermodynaic equilibrium (LTE) of the plasmas. For plasmas under HED (high energy density) conditions, fluid dynamics may be considered for shock waves such as in a supernova explosion. In this report, I will exemplify the necessity for high precision atomic calculations for the radiative processes of photoexcitation and photoionization in order to resolve some perplexing astrophysical problems relevant to elemental abundances and hence opacities. In particular I will present results on oscillator strengths of Fe XVIII and photoionization cross sections of Fe XVII which are abundant in high temperature plasmas, such as solar corona, and photoionization and recombination of O II which is abundant in low temperature plasmas, such as in a planetary nebula. Sophisticated atomic calculations under the Iron Project are revealing important and dominant features not included in the current opacities. Opacities with these new results are expected to resolve the longstanding problems on abundances in the sun, orion nebula etc.

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PHYSICS OF THE CORONA AND PRESENT AND FUTURE MAJOR SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC SPACE MISSIONS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0003
LUC DAMÉ

Several ground facilities and space missions are currently dedicated to the study of the Sun at high resolution and of the solar corona in particular. However, and despite significant progress with the advent of space missions and UV, EUV and XUV direct observations of the hot chromosphere and million degrees coronal plasma, much is yet to be achieved in the understanding of these high temperatures, fine dissipative structures and of the coronal heating in general. Recent missions, in particular Hinode, have shown the definite role of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic changes occur. Observations of multithermal loops and modelling will be presented…

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SOLAR ACTIVITIES AND SPACE WEATHER HAZARDS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0004
AHMED A. HADY

Geomagnetic storms have a good correlation with solar activity and solar radiation variability. Many proton events and geomagnetic storms have occurred during solar cycles21, 22, and 23. The solar activities during the last three cycles, gave us a good indication of the climatic change and its behavior during the 21st century. High energetic eruptive flares were recorded during the decline phase of the last three solar cycles. The appearances of the second peak on the decline phase of solar cycles have been detected. Halloween storms during Nov. 2003 and its effects on the geomagnetic storms have been studied analytically. The data of amplitude and phase of most common indicators of geomagnetic activities during solar cycle 23 have been analyzed.

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ELECTRON BEAM ION TRAP AND ITS APPLICATIONS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0005
YAMING ZOU

Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT), initially developed at LLNL, are sophisticated devices capable of acting both as highly charged ion (HCI) light sources and ion sources. As a HCI light source, they can basically provide light from emission states of any charge state of any element in the periodic table, hence almost unique for spectroscopic research. Furthermore, the emitting ions are almost at rest compared to those produced by heavy ion accelerators or storage rings, much less bothered with Doppler shifts and line broadening. Because of its flexibility in producing various ions, it is very good for studies along iso-electronic sequences, and along iso-nuclear charge sequences to reveal physical properties behind experimental phenomenon. In an EBIT, a thin plasma can be formed with basically any elements, and more important with almost mono-energy electrons. On top of this, the electron energy can be tuned in the range of few hundreds eV to above one hundred keV. This property made it possible to use an EBIT for detail studies of processes in hot plasmas, so as to make disentangling studies of hot plasmas and to assist plasma diagnostics for temperature, density, electromagnetic field, as well as ion moving…

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GENERATION, DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS OF HIGH ENERGY ELECTRON BEAM SOURCES - AN OVERVIEW

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0006
MUNAWAR IQBAL, GHALIB UL ISLAM, HARIS RASHID and FAZAL-E-ALEEM

Thermionic electron beam is a fundamental part of linear accelerators in the field of Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP). Thermionic type of beam is very economical and easy to produce as compared to the other electron beam sources. In this work, we give an overview of generation, design and applications of the electron beam with particular reference to e-beam generation at high energy physics linear accelerators. The data, which is available in the literature is presented in tabular form for ready reference. In order to have a feel of the vast applications of e-beam technology, we elaborate an e-beam source developed in our laboratory.

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FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES AND APPLICATIONS OF HIGHLY CHARGED IONS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0007
REINHOLD SCHUCH

The talk addresses the novel physics that is done with trapped Highly Charged Ions (HCI). We have built up an Electron Beam Ion Trap (SEBIT) at AlbaNova that is now been upgraded to a super-EBIT version for making HCI up to bare uranium ions at rest. Examples are given where this facility together with novel instrumentation is used in challenging new experiments in atomic and fundamental studies:…

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CLASSIFICATION OF SPECTRAL WAVELENGTHS IN ALL REGIONS FOR Si XII

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0008
A. I. REFAIE

Fine structure energy levels, wavelengths, log gf and radiative dipole allowed (E1) transitions have been calculated for lithium-like Si XII. Relativistic Hrtree-Fock and configuration interaction effects have been included in the calculations using the electrostatic parameters that have been optimized by a least squares approach, in order to improve the adjustment to the observed energy levels and transition rates. The 69 fine structure energy levels of total angular momenta, 1/2 ≤ J ≤ 9/2 of even and odd parities, total angular momentum 2 ≤ l ≤ 5 for 2 ≤ n ≤ 10. The spectral wavelengths of 627 lines have been calculated in addition to their radiative transition probabilities. The calculated results obtained from Breit –Pauli show a very good agreement in soft X-ray, EUV and far UV regions with almost all observed and calculated values. In the visible and near IR, the present results are in comparable with the measured and calculated ones. An acceptable discrepancy has been shown in the mid IR region in both measured and calculated results. The comprehensive data sets are applicable for various models such as for ionization balance and recombination-cascade for EUV and X-ray lines.

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SOME HISTORIC AND CURRENT ASPECTS OF PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS USING ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0009
ROGER HUTTON

The use of atomic spectroscopy in the diagnostics of hot plasma, whether terrestrial or astrophysical, has a long and distinguished history. Some examples of past highlights will be given, along with a mention of their impact on contemporary thinking. In terms of more current lines of research on atomic spectroscopy relevant to plasma diagnostics, we will discuss more subtle effects concerning the influence of magnetic and nuclear interactions on atomic structure. For example, there are more effects of magnetic fields on atomic structure than the often though about Zeeman splitting of atomic energy levels. As magnetic fields exist in many astrophysical plasmas and also in Tokomak machines, this line of research may be of great importance to these very important branches of physics. Similarly, effects of nuclear-spin, through the hyperfine interaction, can have dramatic effects on the lifetimes of forbidden transitions. Again, important additions to plasma diagnostics are expected through effects caused by the hyperfine interaction. We will also stress the importance of Electron Beam Ion Traps as excellent laboratory light sources to study such potentially very interesting effects.

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NOVELTY PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ENHANCEMENT OF MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MN NANOFERRITES USING SAFETY BINDER (EGG WHITE)

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0010
M. A. AHMED, N. OKASHA and S. I. EL-DEK

Nanocrystalline MnFe2O4 ferrite was prepared using natural binder; egg white was used as an aqueous medium to extend nanoparticle preparation better than any other interesting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed also that the investigated samples revealed the nanosized structure with crystallite size of 39nm. The magnetic susceptibility measurements give a Curie temperature TC = 613K with effective magnetic moment 23 B. M. The values of magnetic constants as obtained from hysteresis data are, saturation magnetization Ms = 13.71 emu/g, remanent magnetization Mr = 0.1694 emu/g and coercivity Hc = 25.6 Oe.

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STARK BROADENING CALCULATIONS OF SEVERAL Ti LINES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0011
A. I. REFAIE and H. SHARKAWY

This work reports calculated Stark broadening transition of several Ti lines at 1064 nm in a laser-produced plasma (ne = 2.27-1.59 × 1019 cm−3). The method is based on the assumption of homogenous plasma and local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE). Electron temperatures are in the range of 0.79-0.85 eV. There is no data available to be compared with the present calculated parameters except only one experimental reference has been used to compare only three lines with the present data.

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Nanostructure iron-silicon thin film deposition using plasma focus device

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0012
M. Kotb, A. H. Saudy, S. Hassaballa and M. M. ElOker

The presented study in this paper reports the deposition of nano-structure iron-silicon thin film on a glass substrate using 3.3 KJ Mather-type plasma focus device. The iron-silicon powder was put on the top of hollow copper anode electrode. The deposition was done under different experimental conditions such as numbers of electric discharge shots and angular position of substrate. The film samples were exposed to energetic argon ions generated by plasma focus device at different distances from the top of the central electrode. The exposed samples were then analyzed for their structure and optical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The structure of iron-silicon thin films deposited using plasma focus device depends on the distance from the anode, the number of focus deposition shots and the angular position of the sample

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SIZE CONFINEMENT AND MAGNETIZATION IMPROVEMENT BY LA3+ DOPING IN BIFEO3 QUANTUM DOTS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0013
M. A. AHMED, S. I. El-DEK and M. S. AYOUB

A series of La3+ doped nanoparticles of BiFeO3 multiferroic samples was prepared using solid state reaction. Structural and magnetic properties were investigated using XRD, TEM, magnetic susceptibility and M-H loop. All samples were antiferromagnetic in character. Maximum coercivity HC = 5265 Oe was obtained at x = 0.25. Improvement of the magnetization of BiFeO3 is achieved by La3+ at different doping levels.

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SYNTHESIS OF RARE-EARTH DOPED AND UNDOPED GaN NANO-CRYSTALLITES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0014
LOTFIA EL NADI, SAMAH AHMED, M. AWAAD, MAGDY OMAR and YEHIA BADR

Semiconductor nanostructures doped with rare earth ions is a possible way to overcome the limitation of low luminescence efficiency of rare earth ions, providing that the strong confinement of carriers in dots will enhance their recombination in the vicinity of RE ions. Undoped and Eu3+-doped GaN crystallites have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method followed by nitridation reaction at 1100 °C for 2 h, under a continuous flow of NH3 gas. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) revealed that the synthesized undoped and Eu3+-doped GaN crystallites are of a single-phase wurtzite structure. The morphology of the samples was examined by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), and it was shown that the micron-sized particles are composed of agglomerated nano-crystallites. Under the above band gap excitation, all samples exhibited room-temperature photoluminescence with the characteristic GaN band-edge emission peak centered at 363 nm (∼3.4 eV, FWHM ∼ 10 nm) as well as broad defect-related emission peak centered at about 405 nm. The Eu-doped GaN sample, under below bandgap excitation, exhibited red emission peaks centered at 593 nm and 616 nm corresponding to the 5D0 → 7F1 and 5D0 → 7F2 transitions, respectively, within the 4f shell of Eu3+ ions.

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THE FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOCRYSTALLINE MN-FERRITE FROM MAGNETITE

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0015
M. A. AHMED, N. OKASHA and D. NABEEL

Nanocrystalline manganese ferrite of MnxFe3-xO4 with x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The as prepared samples were characterized by XRD and magnetization. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the inverse spinel structure of ferrites particles with size ranged from 12 to 30 nm. The Magnetic properties such as typical saturation magnetization (Ms), remanence magnetization (Mr) and coercive field (Hc) measured at room temperature along with doped at different Mn contents show that the maximum Mn ions content doped into ferrite lattices is x = 0.4 which agree well with the magnetic susceptibility (χM) measurements and the high magnetic parameters.

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THE STRUCTURAL, SPECTRAL AND DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE SYSTEM NZF-BT

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0016
O. M. HEMEDA, A. TAWFIK, M. A. AMER, B. M. KAMAL and D. E. EL REFAAY

The Composite material of NiZnFe2O4 and BaTiO3 were prepared by double sintering ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction pattern for composite xBaTiO3 + (1-x) Ni0.8Zn0.2 Fe2O4 where (x = 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%) show the presence of diphase and confirms the successful preparation the composite. Some parameters were deduced from the analysis of x-ray like porosity, density, particle size and the lattice constant for both phases were calculated from XRD. SEM shows nearly homogeneous microstructure with good dispersion of BT grains and the presence of some pores. There was an enlargement of BT grain by BT content. IR spectra of composite sample indicate that BT content affect the intermolecular character of the ferrite. A rise in dielectric constant occurs at high temperature due to the effect of space change resulting from the increase of change carriers in paramagnetic region. The dielectric loss (tan δ) decrease by increasing BT content.

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ON THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POLY(VINYLCHLORIDE)/POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE) BLENDS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0017
G. M. NASR, S. M. ABD EL-WAHAB and A. ABD EL-ATHEM

Physical blending of different polymers is a very popular, simple and economical method of preparing composite with desirable and useful properties. The electrical conductivity of blends of amorphous poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with semicrystalline poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in the form of thin films has been measured by studying the I-V characteristics at room temperature and temperature dependence of the sample conductivity. The results are presented in the form of I-V characteristics and analysis has been made by interpretation of Poole Frenkel, Fowler-Nordheim and Schottky-Richardson plots. The analysis of these results suggests that Schottky - Richardson mechanism are primarily responsible for the observed conduction. Meanwhile, the percolation concentration of PEO in PVC matrix was found to be round 10%. Furthermore, the mechanism of electrical transport in this system is examined in temperature range 300-350K. The temperature dependence of conductivity gives evidence for the charge carriers transport mechanism via the occurred agreement of experimental results with the employed hopping models.

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CONDUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT OF Mn Zn FERRITE BY GAMMA IRRADIATION

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0018
M. A. AHMED, A. M. DIAB and S. F. MANSOUR

A series of the ferrite system Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 2.0) were prepared by the standard ceramic method. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of single phase cubic structure and shows also that the lattice constant decreases with increasing Zn content. The effect of Zn+2 ion concentration on the structural and the electrical properties of the investigated samples are studied. The most important result of γ-irradiation on the electrical properties is the variation of change ratio Fe2+ Fe3 + e− on the octahedral site leading to an increase in the conductivity as well as the dielectric constant.

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EFFECT OF Y3+ CATION ON ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF Ni-Zn FERRITES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0019
L. M. SALAH

Two groups of the ferrite samples of the general formula Ni0.5Zn0.5YyFe2-iyO4; were prepared by double sintering ceramic method. The first group, i=1, 0.02 y 0.12 i.e. the Fe ion was partially substituted the Y ion. The second group; i=0, 0.02 y 0.08 i.e. the Y ion was added to the Ni0.5 Zn0.5Fe2O4. The influence of Y3+ ion on the electrical properties of the two groups of the investigated samples is studied. It is noticed that the ac conductivity (ln) are nearly constant for all Y3+ ion concentration for the two groups. This result confirm the x-ray diffraction data and the calculated values of the cation distribution, where the process of dissolution of any ratio of yttrium in the cubic spinel lattice never occurs but exists outside the grain as aggregation and the non stoichiometeric system can redistribute itself to produce a single phase of cubic spinel under the suitable sintering process. The obtained results indicate that the ac conductivity of the investigated samples is controlled by hopping mechanism. The dielectric constant (ε′) as well as dielectric loss (tanδ) change. The obtained result is discussed in view of Maxwell–Wagner process.

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CHARACTERIZATION AND DRAMATIC VARIATIONS OF THE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF Cu-DOPED NANOMETRIC CO-FERRITE

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0020
M. A. AHMED, S. F. MANSOUR and M. A. ABDO

Structure and magnetic properties of Co1-xCuxFe2O4 were investigated. Cobalt ferrite has been synthesized by double sintering ceramic technique. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) confirmed the formation of single phase cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in the range 38 − 46 ± 3nm which is a good result for this method of preparation. The magnetic susceptibility was studied at different temperature as a function of magnetic field intensities. The room temperature hysteresis loop was performed for the present samples in the field intensity of 108kOe using VSM. The parameters of X-ray density (dx) and apparent density (da) increases with increasing Cu+2 concentrations in the prepared samples.

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ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE ND2FE14B INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0021
ABEER E. ALY

The calculations on electronic structures of Nd2Fe14B are calculated using first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method. We study the magnetic properties of Nd2Fe14B using the LDA+U and spin-orbit coupling methods. Results are presented for total density of states (DOS) as well as the site-projected partial density of states (PDOS) and the spin magnetic moment of Fe at each of the six in-equivalent transition-metal sites. The total spin-magnetic moments and the average Fe moment are in a good agreement with the values deduced from the neutron scattering experiment. The spin-polarized calculations, excluding the Hubbard and SO interaction, resulted in the total spin magnetic moment is 46.6 μB compared to the experimental values 34.63 μB to the value of 39.6 μB we obtained using LDA+U scheme without Spin-Orbit coupling(SO). But using LDA+U +SO the total spin magnetic moment is 37.6 μB.

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THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE)/POLY (ETHYLENE OXIDE) BLENDS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0022
G. M. NASR, S. M. ABD EL-WAHAB and A. ABD EL-ATHEM

The miscibility and optical properties of polyvinylchloride (PVC) blends with different concentration of polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been studied. FTIR spectroscopy studies show the presence of interactions between blend constituents. The optical properties in the UV-visible regions are investigated at room temperature. From absorption spectra in UV-visible regions, the dependence of the absorption coefficient on the photon energy suggests the presence of both direct and indirect allowed transitions in k-space. The values of the optical band gap (Eopt) for both transitions have been obtained. The width of the tail of localized states in the band gap (Eu) was evaluated using the Urbach-edges. Both the parameters (Eopt) and (Eu) vary with different PEO content.

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GIANT ENHANCEMENT IN THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LaFeO3 BY SUBSTITUTION OF DIVALENT IONS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0023
M. A. AHMED, S. I. DEK and M. M. ARMAN

Perovskites with the general formula La1-xMxFeO3, x = 0.0 and x = 0.3, M = Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ were prepared by the double sintering ceramic technique. The X-ray powder diffraction, IR and TEM were carried out to characterize the samples. The molar magnetic susceptibility (χM) was enhanced by substitution the divalent metal ion (M2+ = Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+) instead of La+3. The saturation magnetization for both Ca2+ and Sr2+ substituted samples is increased up to 10 times its values for the parent which allow to use these samples in many applications. The Ca substitution improves the conductivity by more than 18 times while the Sr enhances it by 25 times.

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GIANT ENHANCEMENT IN THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LaFeO3 BY SUBSTITUTION OF DIVALENT IONS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0023
M. A. AHMED, S. I. DEK and M. M. ARMAN

Perovskites with the general formula La1-xMxFeO3, x = 0.0 and x = 0.3, M = Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ were prepared by the double sintering ceramic technique. The X-ray powder diffraction, IR and TEM were carried out to characterize the samples. The molar magnetic susceptibility (χM) was enhanced by substitution the divalent metal ion (M2+ = Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+) instead of La+3. The saturation magnetization for both Ca2+ and Sr2+ substituted samples is increased up to 10 times its values for the parent which allow to use these samples in many applications. The Ca substitution improves the conductivity by more than 18 times while the Sr enhances it by 25 times.

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LASER DRIVEN SECONDARY SOURCES FOR SPECTROSCOPY, PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS AND OTHER APPLICATIONS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0024
THOMAS KUEHL, BASTIAN AURAND, VINCENT BAGNOUD, BORIS ECKER, UDO EISENBARTH, DANIEL HOCHHAUS, PAUL NEUMAYER, HUANYU ZHAO, BERNHARD ZIELBAUER, DANIEL ZIMMER, JAMIL HABIB, SOPHIE KAZAMIAS, ANNIE KLISNICK, DAVID ROS, JOSEF SERES, CHRISTIAN SPIELMANN and DANIEL URSESCU

Ultra-High Intensity lasers in the regime above 100 TW have developed into a well studied tool for the preparation of plasma targets. In addition they can provide unprecedented sources of coherent soft x-rays and incoherent hard x-rays and of proton and light-ion beams. These sources are unique in their intensity and time definition. In the specific case of the laser driven x-ray laser, the coherence and narrow bandwidth of the source holds promises for additional applications. Use of secondary sources for plasma diagnostic has already been reported by several groups but in all cases still source developments are going on. The presentation will report on activities at the PHELIX laser at the GSI Helmholtz Centre, and plans and proposals for the application in combination with heavy-ion beams at GSI and the future FAIR facility.

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ADVANCED LABORATORY FOR HIGH DENSITY PHYSICS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0025
LOTFIA ELNADI, A. NASSER A. FETTOH, A. REFAIE, GALLILA A. MEHENA, HUSSEIN A. MONIEM, HISHAM IMAM, KHALED A. ELSAYED, MAGDY OMAR and SALAH H. NABY

The following sections are included: Introduction The Architecture of the High Density Short Pulse Laser Femtosecond Oscillator Booster 10 Hz Amplifier Passive Pulse Cleaner Stretcher Regenerative Amplifier Pre-Amplifier Main High Energy Amplifier Compressor Interaction Processes of HDSP Lasers with Matter Conclusion References

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HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS: THE LASER FIELD OF TOMORROW

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0026
RICHARD R. FREEMAN

Ever since its invention, the laser has become an increasingly important tool for physics research. Indeed, the laser has made it possible to not only study many extant physical phenomena, but also to actually produce matter in conditions that don't exist in nature, or more precisely, don't exist on the earth. In this lecture, I discuss how the development of lasers that produce ultra-short (∼fsec) and ultra-intense (≥1020 W/cm2) laser pulses actually produce plasmas that are at a density and temperature that exist only in stars. In doing so I discuss some of the basics of these extreme pulses interacting with electrons, yielding surprisingly intriguing physical phenomena. Finally, I argue that this field is an essential element in any comprehensive physical research endeavor, explicitly citing its fundamental relationship with the development of clean, unlimited fusion energy power.

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CHARACTERIZATION OF DC GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA BY HOLLOW CATHODE

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0027
K. H. METWALLY, A. H. SAUDY, M. FAROUK and M. M. EL-OKR

The following sections are included: Introduction Experimental Setup Results and Discussion Conclusion References

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THE TEXAS PETAWATT LASER AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS AN EXAWATT LASER

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0028
TODD DITMIRE

We have completed the construction of a high peak power, ultrafast laser which delivers peak power in excess of 1 petawatt (1015 W). This laser, the Texas Petawatt Laser, is based on a combination of OPCPA and mixed Nd: glass amplifiers, enabling high energy operation with compressed pulse duration of <160 fs. The laser presently delivers 160 fs pulses with pulse energy exceeding 200 J. Using pulse shaping technology and broad band amplification on the front end, this laser demonstrates petawatt technology in Nd: glass amplifiers at pulse duration shorter than other Nd: glass-based petawatt facilities around the world. In my talk, I will report on the design and performance of the laser, including the technology used to access such high powers and near 100 fs compressed pulse duration…

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DENSELY PACKED 2-D MATRIX-ADDRESSABLE VERTICAL-CAVITY SURFACE-EMITTING LASER ARRAYS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0029
ABDEL-SATTAR GADALLAH and RAINER MICHALZIK

We report on design, manufacturing, and characterization of densely packed top-emitting 16 × 16 elements wire-bonded matrix-addressable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays, which may find future applications such as non-mechanical particle movement with optical multi-tweezers, confocal microscopy or free-space communications with beam steering capability. The factors that control the packing density such as layer structure, mask design, and VCSEL processing are investigated, aiming to minimize the pitch between VCSELs in the array. Both wet-etched and dry-etched arrays are presented and discussed. The single transverse mode VCSELs in the two-dimensional (2-D) matrix-addressable architecture have threshold currents which vary from 0.5 to 1.6 mA and maximum output powers between 2.4 and 4 mW. A simple analysis of the parasitic ohmic resistances is made.

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XUV AND SOFT X-RAY LASER RADIATION FROM Ni-LIKE Au

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0030
WESSAMELDIN S. ABDELAZIZ and H. M. HAMED

Atomic structure data and effective collision strengths from literature for 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p63d10 and 34 fine-structure levels contained in the configurations 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p63d9 4l (l = s, p, d) for the nickel-like Au ion are used in the determination of the reduced population for the 35 fine structure levels over a wide range of electron densities and at various electron plasma temperatures. The gain coefficient for those transitions with positive population inversion factor are determined and plotted against the electron density.

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Enhanced Type-I Polarization-Entangled Photons Using CW-Diode Laser

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0031
Salem Hegazy, Mohy S. Mansour and Lotfia El Nadi

We used two type-I BBO crystals pumped by violet cw-diode laser of relatively wide bandwidth to produce entangled photons of considerable degree of purity. While diode laser serves the mobility and the low-cost of the entangled photons source, suitable temporal compensation is required in this case to recover the purity of the state. We studied also effect of tilting the two-crystal set on overlapping of the SPDC cones.

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EFFECT OF PREPARATION METHOD ON LUMINESCENCE PROPERTIES AND QUANTUM EFFICIENCY OF CdTe QDs

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0032
A. M. SAAD, M. M. BAKER, M. A. KANA and I. M. AZZOUZ

The effect of preparation procedure on the optical properties of CdTe semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) has been investigated. CdTe NPs have been prepared via two different methods, organometallic pyrolysis method and microwave assisted aqueous based method. The nanostructure for the prepared NPs via both methods was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Comparison between the quantum yield emissions of the as-prepared NPs of both methods is presented. The results shows that CdTe NPs which prepared via microwave assisted aqueous method yielded a much higher quantum efficiency (>41%). Amplified stimulated emission is investigated at room temperature (300K) and at low temperature (10K). Lifetime is also measured.

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Novel Process for Laser Stain Removal from Archaeological Oil Paintings

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0033
Lotfia El-Nadi, Osama El-Feky, Galila Abdellatif and Sawsan Darwish

Some samples of oil paintings (5 × 5 cm) were prepared on wooden panel with four types of fungi commonly encountered on oil paintings were selected for this study. Each of the fungi is associated with different colored stains. Fungus Alternaria tenuis is associated by a dense black stain, Chetomium globosum by a brownish gray stain, Aspergillus flavus by a yellowish stain, and Fusaruim oxysporum by a pinkish stain. Fungi growing on oil paintings affect the surface characteristics by forming a variety of colored patches typically composed of many complex chemical substances that are produced during metabolic processes. These colored stains may be encrusted in spores, present in mycelium or secreted to a substance such as oil paintings surfaces. While the fungal stains can sometimes be extracted with appropriate solvents, there are some stains that resist solvent extraction entirely. Developing new solvent system that might attack the paint structure, and is time consuming and requires a great deal of trial and error. Mechanical stain removal is also problematic in that it often produces abrasion of the surface, markedly deteriorating the artwork, and is extra ordinarily fine and tedious. For these reasons, we decided to examine an alternative physical technique as a new approach to deal with stain removal. Since the stains are due to the existence of fungi, we thought it a good idea to remove them by singlet oxygen. We applied the photo dynamic process through which the fungi stains were covered with organic dye derivatives in solution under controlled illumination in the lab. The samples were then irradiated by low power Laser light from a He-Ne laser, the dye will be photodecomposed and produce singlet oxygen. We report in this work the results obtained as a function of: - The concentration and types of the organic dye in solution, - The presence of certain amounts of liquids added to the solution, - The scanning speed of the laser beam on the sample surface, - The irradiation time. For each case fresh samples were used and photographed before and after the treatment. The results obtained will be speculated and discussed. This procedure was applied to the cleaning of archaeological oil paintings for the first time to our knowledge. The method could well be considered as a new field of combined science and technology applied to laser stain removal and represents a significant addition to the techniques available to art conservation.

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APPLICATION OF LASER INDUCED PLASMA SPECTROSCOPY ON BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0034
A. ABD-ALFATTAH, A. A. ELDAKROURI, H. EMAM and I. M. AZZOUZ

Worldwide, millions of breast cancer cases appear each year. It ranked as the first malignant tumors in Egypt. Breast cancer patients are at increased risk of developing malignant melanoma and cancers of the ovary, endometrium, colon, thyroid, and salivary glands because of similar hormonal and genetic factors. Therefore, early diagnosis by a quick and accurate method may have a great affect on healing. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using LIPS as a simple, technique to diagnose breast cancer by measuring the concentration of trace elements in breast tissues. The accuracy of LIPS measurements was confirmed by carrying out another elemental analysis via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) technique. The results obtained via these two techniques showed that the concentration of Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn in the malignant tissue cells are significantly enhanced. A voting algorithm was built for instantaneous decision of the diagnostic technique (normal or malignant). This study instigates developing a new diagnostic tool with potential use in vivo.

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ULTRAFAST PROCESSES IN CONDENSED MATTER STUDIED WITH ULTRASHORT LASER PULSES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0035
P. A. LOUKAKUS

The high peak power and the short temporal duration of modern solid state laser systems are valuable tools to perform research on the interactions of light with matter in fundamental as well as applied and technological directions…

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ENERGY SECURITY OF INDIA — NUCLEAR ENERGY — AN INEVITABLE OPTION PRESENT PLANS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0036
JAI P. MITTAL

Recently, during last 5-10 years, India has been witnessing a very healthy economic growth of ∼6-8% pa in GDP. Energy, particularly electricity becomes a key input for sustaining such an accelerating growth…

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CHARGE MEASUREMENTS OF FRAGMENTED NUCLEI OF Si AT DIFFERENT ENERGIES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0037
M. S. EL-Nagdy, A. Abdelsalam, A. Algaood and M. Ahmed

This experimental research is a preparatory study to reflect the accuracy in identifying heavy fragmented nuclei in nuclear emulsion. The distributions of δ-rays produced by projectile fragments from 3.7A GeV 28Si in NIKFI-BR2 emulsion have been investigated. Such 28Si beam was accelerated at Dubna Synchrophastron. For sake of comparison, another source of data due to 14.6A GeV 28Si from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), using different type of photographic emulsion (Fuji), is introduced. The charges of the produced projectile fragments having 2 ≤ Z ≤ 14 are deduced. This research may be important to carry out any subsequent investigation dealing with the mechanism of Si fragmentation at high energy, on the basis of the present identified charges.

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PASSIVE SAFETY FEATURES IN ADVANCED NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DESIGN

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0038
M. TAHIR, I. R. CHUGHTAI and M. ASLAM

For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

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RESEARCH STUDIES PERFORMED USING THE CAIRO FOURIER DIFFRACTOMETER FACILITY

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0039
R. M. A. MAAYOUF

This report represents the results of research studies performed using the Cairo Fourier diffractometer facility (CFDF), within 10 years after it was installed and put into operation at the beginning of 1996. The main components of the CFDF were supplied by the IAEA according to the technical assistance project EGY/1/022. Plenty of measurements were performed, since then; yielding several publications, both in local and international scientific periodicals; and 8 M.Sc. & Ph.D. degrees from Egyptian Universities. Besides, a new approach for the analysis of the neutron spectra measured using the CFDF; applying especially designed interface card, along with its proper software program, instead of the reverse time of flight (RTOF), Finnish make, analyzer originally attached to the facility. It has been verified that the new approach cnn successfully replace the RTOF analyzer; significantly decreasing the time of measurement; and saving the reactor's operation time. A special fault diagnostic system program was developed and tested for caring and handling the possible failures of the CFDF. Besides the new developments required for the CFDF for industrial applications in wide scale, are also considered.

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K-SURFACES IN SCHWARZSCHILD GEOMETRY

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0040
AYUB FARIDI, FAZAL-E-ALEEM and HARIS RASHID

Study of the spacetime dynamics in Schwarzschild Geometry (SG) has always been in the lime light. Constant Mean Extrinsic Curvature (CMEC) hypersurfaces, also known as K-Surfaces, play an important role in SG. The talk spells out the importance of spacetime foliations and elaborates the behavior of K-surfaces for large values of K near essential singularity of Schwarzschild black hole.

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X-Rays of Heavy Elements for Nanotechnological Applications: W and Pb Ions

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0041
Sultana N. Nahar

Heavy elements can absorb or emit hard X-rays and hence are commonly implemented in various high energy nanotechnological applications. The absorptin or emission occurs mainly through the 1s-2p (Kα) transitions, and the process can be used as the source for production of radiation or electron in the applications. For enhanced productions of electrons and photons in the nanobiomedical applications, investigations have focused on the K-shell ionization of the atom or ion. This is because of the well-known rise in photoionization at the K-shell ionization threshold. However, experimental investigations to find any evidence of this rise has not been successful. We have developed a new method called Resonant Theranostics for biomedical applications, where we show that the energy for the rise is related to 1s-np, particularly to 1s-2p transitions which appear as resonances in the photoionization for heavy elements. The energy for the 1s-2p transitions varies some with the ionic state of the element and gives a narrow band resonant energy for the element. The strength of the process depends on the oscillator strength of the transitions. This report will demonstrate these through illustrations of the resonant energy range and strengths of photoabsorption due to K-alpha transitions using some elements, such as tungsten (W, Z=74) and lead (Pb, Z=82). An X-ray photon can ionize a high-Z element by ejection of a K-shell electron. This will create a hole or vacancy which, through the Auger process, will be filled out by an upper shell electron with emission of a photon. Such process at the resonant energy can lead to Koster-Kronig cascade giving out a number of photons and electrons as the element goes through various ionic states and can be modeled using the oscillator strengths. Such emissions are highly desirable in radiation therapy application. Present illustrations will include electric dipole allowed transitions for nine ionic states, from hydrogen to fluorine like ions. The 2p subshell is filled beyond fluorine. The number of transitions in each ionic state is different because of different number of 2p electrons. There are 2, 2, 6, 2, 14, 35, 35, 14 and 2 transitions in H-, He-like, Li-like, Be-like, B-like, C-like, N-like, O-like, and F-like ions respectively, with a total of 112 Kα transitions for each element to occur in the event of breaking of the ionic states, such as, due to Auger process. The Kα transitions are found to be in hard X-ray region of 57 - 63 keV (0.22 - 0.20 Å) for W, and 71 - 80 keV (0.17 - 0.16 Å) for lead.

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EFFECTS OF RADON INHALATION ON SOME BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BLOOD IN RATS

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0042
M. F. ESSA, FAYEZ M. SHAHIN, ASHOUR M. AHMED and OMAR ABDEL-SALAM

The major source of human exposure to natural radiation arises from the inhalation of radon (222Rn) gas. Exposure to high concentrations of radon 222Rn and its daughters for long period leads to pathological effects like lung cancer, leukaemia, skin cancer and kidney diseases. The present study was performed on rats to investigate the effect of radon exposure on the absorption spectra of hemoglobin. Measurements have been performed in a radon chamber where rats were exposed to radon for 1, 5 or 7 weeks. The inhalation of radon resulted in decrease in intensity of the absorption bands characterizing the hemoglobin molecular structure with increased radon doses.

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INJECTION OF SCATTERED DISC OBJECTS INTO THE INNER SOLAR SYSTEM IN RESPONSE TO SHRINKAGE OF THE HELIOSPHERE

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0043
STEVEN FOSTER and SHAHINAZ YOUSEF

The heliosphere is the cocoon which engulfs the solar system within. It includes the planets, dwarf planets, the asteroid belt and finally the icy fragments of Kuiper belt objects and the scattered disk objects. The Kuiper belt is rather a thick donut extending from 30 AU inclined by about 0-10 degrees to the ecliptic. Beyond the Kuiper belt. Extend the scattered disc objects, SDOs to perhaps 100 AU and beyond. Most important, the SDOs are the source of periodic comets lasting less than 200 years which is of the order of the De Verie solar cycle. The boundary of the heliosphere is determined by the balance between the solar wind pressure and the stellar wind pressure. At times of reduced solar wind, the heliosphere is pushed inward. Right now we are at the bottom of the 80-120 years Solar Wolf-Gleissberg cycle where weak solar cycle series persists. During the period 1890-2010, the heliosphere oscillated between 75-125 AU. This paper proposes a “pump mechanism” in which scattered disc objects are injected into the inner solar system during times of low solar cycles and the conjunction of Neptune with the Hydrogen wall. We suggest that the inward movement of the heliosphere inject short period comets into the inner solar system. A possible orbital relationship exists between Neptune (164.3 years) and two Wolf-Gleissberg cycles (165 years). As the solar wind has been reduced at present, we suggest an increased frequency of these short period comets after allowing for delay times.

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Transverse momentum spectra of alpha-particles as projectile fragments in Nucleus - Em Interaction at (4.1 - 4.5) A GeV/c

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0044
S. S. Abd El-Aziz, M. Mohery and M. H. Soleiman

The transverse momentum spectra (pT-distribution) of the relativistic α-aparticles in the projectile fragmentation resulting from the interaction of 12C, 16O, 28Si (4.5 A GeV/c), and 22Ne (4.1 A GeV/c) projectiles with emulsion have been analyzed and modeled. The behavior of PT-adistribution of the emitted α-fragments was found to be independent of the types of projectile and also of the energy of the projectile. All of the pT-distributions have a tail, at large transverse momentum. Single Maxwell-Boltzmann model (M-B) is not sufficient to describe this behavior, but a superimposition of two Maxwell-Boltzmann (M-B) models with different transverse momentum spectra PTMean, and with different temperatures is adequate. The linear fitting method has a drawback that the total model resulting from superimposition of two M-B models is shifted toward larger transverse momentum regions and doesn't completely fit with the total PT-distribution of α-fragments.

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LIGHT-STRANGE MESONS DECAYS IN THE QUARK MODEL

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0045
A. M. Yasser, E. M. Hassan, M. A. Fawzy and M. A. Allosh

The 3P0 model is used to investigate light-strange mesons strong decays. Decay amplitudes and decay widths are evaluated by using relativistic and non-relativistic simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) wave-functions. Numerical results are given for allowed open-flavor decay modes for and mesons. The results for the relativistic model are in good agreement with the recent published data.

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SURPRISING RAPID COLLAPSE OF SIRIUS B FROM RED GIANT TO WHITE DWARF THROUGH MASS TRANSFER TO SIRIUS A

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0046
SHAHINAZ YOUSEF and OLA ALI

Sirius was observed in antiquity as a red star. In his famous astronomy textbook the Almagest written 140 AD, Ptolemy described the star Sirius as fiery red. He curiously depicted it as one of six red-colored stars. The other five are class M and K stars, such as Arcturus and Betelgeuse. Apparent confirmation in ancient Greek and Roman sources are found and Sirius was also reported red in Europe about 1400 years ago. Sirius must have changed to a white dwarf in the night of Ascension. The star chapter in the Quran started with “by the star as it collapsed (1) your companion have not gone astray nor being misled (2), and in verse 49 which is the rotation period of the companion Sirius B around Sirius A, it is said” He is the Lord of Sirius (49). If Sirius actually was red what could have caused it to change into the brilliant bluish-white star we see today? What the naked eye perceives as a single star is actually a binary star system, consisting of a white main sequence star of spectral type A1V, termed Sirius A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DA2, termed Sirius B. The red color indicates that the star seen then was a red giant. It looks that what they have seen in antiquity was Sirius B which was then a red giant and it collapsed to form a white dwarf. Since there is no evidence of a planetary nebula, then the red Sirius paradox can be solved in terms of stellar evolution with mass transfer. Sirius B was the most massive star which evolved to a red giant and filled the Roche lobe. Mass transfer to Sirius A occurred through the Lagrangian point. Sirius A then became more massive while Sirius B lost mass and shrank. Sirius B then collapsed abruptly into a white dwarf. In the case of Algol, Ptolmy observed it as white star but it was red at the time of El sufi. At present it is white. The rate of mass transfer from Sirius B to Sirius A, and from Algol B to A is estimated from observational data of colour change from red to bullish white to be 0.0021 and 0.0024 M⊙/yr respectively.

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EVALUATION OF RADIOACTIVITY CONCENTRATION IN TILAPIA NILOTICA AND RADIATION DOSE TO EGYPTIAN POPULATION

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0047
HANNAN H. AMER and ENAS H. EL-KHAWAS

One of the three goals of the United Nations for sustainable food security is to ensure that all people have access to sufficient, nutritionally adequate, and safe food. The study was carried out to evaluate the Uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) concentration in the Bolti (Tilapia nilotica) fish collected from Nasser Lake by using two different types of detectors CR-39 SSNTDs and gamma spectroscopy. The annual intake of Bolti fish was estimated on the basis of their average annual consumption. Calculations were also made to determine the effective dose to an individual consuming such diet.

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SOLAR FORCINGS ON NILE AND EARTHQUAKES

U+1F512 & doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814504898_0048
SAAD MOHAMMED AL-SHEHRI, ISMAIL SABBAH, SHAHINAZ MOUSTAFA YOUSEF and MAGDY Y. AMIN

Nile and earthquake periodicities are examined in the light of solar and geomagnetic periodicities in order to uncover the role of the sun in initiating such terrestrial phenomena. The Nile periodicities under considerations covers the period 622-1420 AD. 1749- 1800 and 1870-1945 and are taken from an earlier paper by Yousef and El-Rae (1995). It is found that 11 yr and 21 yr solar periodicities affected the White Nile originating from the Equatorial plateau. On the other hand the Blue Nile arising mainly from Lake Tana in Ethiopia was affected mostly by the 3.3 yr, 2.9 yr, 2.7 yr, and the 2.52 yr periodicities. Such short periodicities are also present in cosmic rays. This is fairly true as during weak solar cycles series at the bottom of the 80-120 year Solar Wolf-Gleissberg Cycles, the level of the second to last of the weak cycles rise and fall coherently with full solar cycles with a correlation coefficient of about 0.9. Rain over Ethiopia is affected by the Monsoon precipitation which is related to the quasi biennial oscillations QBO of the equatorial zonal wind between the easterlies and the westerlies in the tropical stratosphere with a mean period of 29 months. We propose that the QBO are stimulated by the 2.52-2.48 yr solar periodicities. The 2.52 and 2.48 yr periodicity is strong in odd solar cycles 21 and 23. Generally speaking, it looks that different solar periodicities are space-time dependant and that they affect different regimes of terrestrial responses. In the case of earthquakes, we think that they are related to geomagnetic storms initiated by solar stimuli. Several solar periodicities are found in earthquakes. We postulate that electric currents in the ring current and in the ionosphere induce surface as well as deep electric currents in the magma thus produce motion and disturbances of the plates and the magma leading to earthquakes and volcanoes.

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Nanotechnology Enables Hot Gold Nanorods to Kill Cancer Cells and to Stop Alive Sick Cells from Migrating to other Places in the Body

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. A. El-Sayed

Cancer kills many people after several years of suffering and after using a great deal of different unsuccessful treatments, like surgery, chemical and/or radiation treatments. The field of Nanotechnology showed us how different materials acquire so many different properties when their size is reduced to the nanometer scale. Gold nanoparticles having rod shape of nanometer size and a length: width ratio of 3:1 can absorb near infrared light (to which our body is transparent) and convert it into heat. If solution containing gold nanorods is injected into a cancer lump and exposed to near infrared light, the hot solution (resulting from the gold nanorods upon absorbing the near infra-red light) melts the cancer cells leading to their death. This was demonstrated by our group in the photo-thermal destruction and destroying cancer cells in solution and in cancer lumps in small and large animals.1-5 Normally, some of the cancer cells that do not die are able to migrate to other parts of the body away from the location of their initial formation spot until they are located in a sensitive part of the body that leads to the cancer patient death. Thus, most of the cancer patients die from cancer after the cancer cells migrate by a process called metastasis to a more sensitive part of the body. Very recently, however, we discovered 5-6 that in our photo-thermal treatment, while treating cancer cells in the first cancer location with hot gold nano-rods, the cancer cell legs and arms and the motion proteins are photo-thermally destroyed. This makes it difficult for the cancer cells to migrate to a new more important functional locations in the body. This treatment is thus effective in stopping cancer cell migration through the patient body and increases the success rate of the patient’s complete recovery.

References 1.El-Sayed, I. H.; Huang, X.; El-Sayed, M. A., Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles. Cancer letters 2006,239 (1), 129-135.
2.Dickerson, E. B.; Dreaden, E. C.; Huang, X.; El-Sayed, I. H.; Chu, H.; Pushpanketh, S.; McDonald, J. F.; El-Sayed, M. A., Gold nanorod assisted near-infrared plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) of squamous cell carcinoma in mice. Cancer letters 2008,269 (1), 57-66.
3.Ali, M. R. K.; Rahman, M. A.; Wu, Y.; Han, T.; Peng, X.; Mackey, M. A.; Wang, D.; Shin, H. J.; Chen, Z. G.; Xiao, H.; Wu, R.; Tang, Y.; Shin, D. M.; El-Sayed, M. A., Efficacy, long-term toxicity, and mechanistic studies of gold nanorods photothermal therapy of cancer in xenograft mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2017.
4.Ali, M. R. K.; Ibrahim, I. M.; Ali, H. R.; Selim, S. A.; El-Sayed, M. A., Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis. International Journal of Nanomedicine 2016,11, 4849-4863.
5.Ali, M. R. K.; Wu, Y.; Tang, Y.; Xiao, H.; Chen, K.; Han, T.; Fang, N.; Wu, R.; El-Sayed, M. A., Targeting cancer cell integrins using gold nanorods in photothermal therapy inhibits migration through affecting cytoskeletal proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2017,114 (28), E5655-E5663.
6.Ali, M. R. K.; Wu, Y.; Ghosh, D.; Do, B. H.; Chen, K.; Dawson, M. R.; Fang, N.; Sulchek, T. A.; El- Sayed, M. A., Nuclear Membrane-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion. ACS Nano 2017. 1936-0851.

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Two-dimensional system - black phosphorus: electronic, atomic structure and transport properties of bP(100) single crystals

U+1F5122019-04-22
Ionov A.M., Zagitova A.A., , Bozhko S.I., Kulakov V.I.

Recently, greater attention has been paid to systems with reduced dimensionality. Two-dimensional materials, quantum threads, quantum dots, as well as hybrid structures, attract the attention of scientists for the reason that their properties often differ from the properties of a bulk material. Among twodimensional materials, graphene, dichalcogenides of transition metals, and monoatomic layers of Si, Ge, Sn have also been extensively studied. As a promising two-dimensional material, black phosphorus was also proposed, the allotropic modification of phosphorus most stable under normal conditions. Black phosphorus is a layered material in which atomic layers are held by weak van der Waals forces. The electronic, atomic structure and transport properties of black phosphorus (bP) single crystals prepared by high-pressure methods and a gas-transport reaction were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM). After exposure of the clean surface at atmospheric conditions, the features in the XPS spectra corresponding to the oxidized form of phosphorus were observed. The appearance of oxidized areas on the surface was also detected using AFM. The atomic resolution of the surface of a single crystal was obtained by the STM method. As a result of low-temperature transport measurements, impurity activation energies were determined, negative magnetoresistance along the Y direction was detected and discussed.

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The phenomenon of a powerful explosion of light

U+1F5122019-04-22
Kholmurad Khasanov

In laboratory conditions, we detected a quantum high-frequency super-compressive field of space. Recently, the Russian satellite named after Mikhail Lomonosov, launched in 2016 and integrated with the Kanopus-B spacecraft, equipped with an ultraviolet telescope, recorded an explosion of high-power light above tens of kilometers from Earth [1]. Director of the Nuclear Research Institute of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov interviewed, that detected explosion of light in the atmosphere is a new physical element. Surprisingly, the explosion occurred in a cloud free Earth’ssky. According to the scientists, discovered explosion of light in the atmosphere is a new physical phenomenon. This phenomenon cannot be explained within the framework of existing physical laws [2]. Registration of the quantum field space was carried out thanks to a dynamic emitter.A dynamic emitter of a special design created in which a supersonic air jet with a spiral-spherical structure formed when the gas jet expires in the flooded space. Dynamic emitter’s design published in the journals as "Fluid Dynamics" [3], "American Journal of Modern Physics" [4] and "Physics Letters A" [5], in which you can find a detailed description of the structure, as well as the formation of a spiral structure, super-compressed supersonic jets. The quantum field of space recorded by optical methods using a Schlieren Photography method [6] and laser high-speed imaging [7]. As an example, we can demonstrate images of the explosion of light in the atmosphere during the outflow of a supersonic flow and its interaction with the detected quantum field of space where the explosion of light occurs in different spectral ranges. (Fig. 1,2,3). The explosion of light in the atmosphere stimulated by quantum of high-frequency super-compressive field of space and the explosion of light in the atmosphere converge to the same physical nature having a single mechanism.

References
[1] Mail Online. (2019). Russian satellite detect mysterious 'explosions of light'. [online] Available at: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6692297/What- Russia-spotted-Earths-atmosphere-Scientists-say-satellite-saw-explosions-light.html [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].
[2] Atmosphere, R., reading, F., news, M. and read, M. (2019). Russian satellite spots mysterious 'light explosions' in Earth's atmosphere | Computing. [online] http://www.computing.co.uk. Available at: https://www.computing.co.uk/ctg/news/3070927/russian-satellite-spots-mysteriouslight- explosions-in-earths-atmosphere [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].
[3] Khasanov, Kh., 2012. Emission of High Energy during Super-Compressibility of Supersonic Jets. Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, 2(4), p.172.
[4] KhasanovKh. Spatial super-compression of the continuous media inhighfrequency fields // American Journal of Modern Physics. — 2015. — Vol. 4. — P. 281– 286.
[5] Khasanov, Kh., 2012. Visualization of super-compressibility in supersonic spiraltwisted jets. Physics Letters A, 376(5), pp.748-752.
[6] Ian.org. (2019). HOWTO: Schlieren Photography. [online] Available at: http://www.ian.org/Schlieren/HowTo.html [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].
[7] John P. Crimaldi, Daniel W. Knight (2005), A Laser-Based Flow Visualization System for Fluid Mechanics Instruction.

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ULTRA INTENSE LASERS FORM THE SUN IN THE LABORATORY

U+1F5122019-04-22
Lotfia El Nadi

Since their starting steps in 1985, Ultra Intense Lasers (UIL) have been developed to generate femto -second pulses with typical high performance parameters: Peak Power up to~ 1000 TW = PW - Pulse Duration < 20 fs - Pulse Energy~ 2 Joules-Rep. Rate ~ 10 Hz- λ~ 800 nm When such photons are properly focused on a target, creation of simultaneous exotic conditions within an extremely short time are developed, which have never been achieved before. Non linear optical processes are dominating and material is totally ionized providing large charge densities of around > 10 24 cm -3 and energetic electrons of 10 3 to 10 6 ev

FORMING THE SUN IN THE LABORATORY Non equilibrium dynamics in a violently driven systems lead to Non- Maxwelian particle distribution and Gigantic magnitudes simulating the conditions expected for BLACK HOLES where: Magnetic fields of the order 109 gauss, Electric fields of 1010V/ cm, Pressures of the order 10 9 bars and e - Temperatures of the order of 10 8 K are formed.

Ideal conditions to establish an UIL LABORATORY.

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GENERATION OF A HIGH POWER TUNABLE ULTRAFAST WHITE LIGHT LASER FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

U+1F5122019-04-22
Walid Tawfik

In this work, the generation of widely tunable ultrafast high-power laser system with pulse duration of a few-cycle fs pulses using a nonlinear laser interaction in neon-filled hollow-core fiber is demonstrated. The seed source is a 15-fs mode-locked Ti: sapphire of 400 mW and 75 MHz at 800 nm working in TEM00 mode. In this system, the amplification was done via a 1 KHz CPA regenerative-amplifier which produced 32 fs pulses of 2.5 mJ at 800 nm. Then output pulses were highly-compressed by self-phase modulation in an inert gas as a nonlinear medium through a one-meter hollow optical fiber. The dispersion compensation of these pulses was done via a pair of chirped mirrors. The observed pulses have controlled durations from almost 4 fs to <10 fs with power 0.1 TW and repetition rate 1 KHz as shown in fig.1. The characterization of ultrafast pulses in the regime of few-cycle pulses is considered using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) [1]. These pulses can be tuned from about 12 to 94 THz by varying the chirping of input pulses at different pressure of the inert gas. The observed results can give an opportunity to control the progression of strongelectric- field interactions on the ultrafast time scale and can be applied to regenerate attosecond pulses in the deep ultraviolet range. The observed results may give an opportunity to controlling the progression of strong-electric-field interactions on the ultrafast time scale and are crucial to regenerate attosecond x-ray pulses. Furthermore, the generated ultrafast laser pluses can be utilized in many applications in medicine and biology. Obvious areas of utilization include time-resolved imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy. Such investigations can be applied in cases involving tissue examination in the cardiovascular sector as well as applications within the field of malignant diseases [2], [3]. Fig. The Temporal Profile of output

References:
[1] Tawfik, Walid. "Precise measurement of ultrafast laser pulses using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction." Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials 24.04 (2015): 1550040.
[2] S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg: Time-resolved transillumination for medical diagnostics, Optics Letters 15, 1179 (1990).
[3] S. Svanberg: Some applications of ultrashort laser pulses in biology and medicine, Meas. Sci. Technology 12, 1777 (2001).

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On the performance of a flat plate collector

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. K. El-adawi, S. A. Shalaby, S. S. Mostafa, A. M. Abdelaziz

Flat plate collector with thin absorber is studied. Heat balance equation is solved to estimate the temperature of the absorber and its variation along the local day time. The same equation is used to determine the temperature of the working fluid. A published expression to predict with good fitting the hourly global solar irradiance is considered as a source function for the incident solar energy. Three absorbers of different materials: Copper, Aluminium and Mica are considered. The water is considered as a working fluid. Two cooling conditions at the absorber front surface are considered. Factors affecting the efficiency are revealed.

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Studying the effect of Plasmon coupling and their SERS performance for Ag @Au and Au@Ag core- shell free ligand prepared by laser ablation

U+1F5122019-04-22
G.Omar1,Ola. S. Ahmed2, H Imam 3, Mohamed M.Y. Elzayat4, Ahmed S. G. Khalil 4, Radwan G. Abd Ellah1

In this work we synthesis bimetallic silver–gold nanoparticles (NPs) with different structures. Namely, (AuCore-AgShell) and (AgCore-AuShell) nanoparticles were synthesized in double distilled water by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid (PLAL)without any stabilizers or surfactant. Although, laser ablation during surfactant is possible.The morphological and structural properties of the resulting bimetallic nanoparticles were thoroughly analyzed by TEM, DLS, and UV–Vis spectrophotometry. The plasmon band of the two core–shell NPs ranged from approximately 400 to 520nm. For AuCore-AgShell the plasmon band of core–shell NPs can be shifted to lower wavelengths (blue shift) by depositing a silver shell with increasing ablation time of the silver target. On the other side for AgCore-AuShell shifted to higher wavelengths (red shift) by depositing a gold shell with increasing ablation time of the gold target. Furthermore, UV–Visible optical absorption spectroscopy indicated the deviation of the surface plasmon resonance peaks with the Au and Ag shell by variation of the laser pulse ablation time, which affected the shell thickness.The HRTEM images clearly confirm the spherical colloidal stable with two different structures of the two core shell nanoparticles CS- NPs. The effect of cellular uptake of Au, Ag, (AuCore-AgShell) and (AgCore-AuShell) nanoparticles on cell adhesion/viability, cytotoxicity and morphology of Liver cancer cells culture (HePG2) have been investigated.

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High Power Lasers for Determiningthe Level of Heavy metals in Egyptian fuel combustion power plants

U+1F5122019-04-22
Ahmed Asaad I. Khalil1, and A.I. Hafez2

We report on the spectroscopic analysis studies of the heavy metals content in differentEgyptian fuel combustion power plant slagsby employing high power lasers induced spectroscopic analytical technique (LISAT), energy dispersive X-ray analysisand inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) systems.The valuable metals were taken from the steam boiler bottom as solid waste residuefor industrial recycling recovered. The investigated composition analysis byemploying the calibration of thelaser spectroscopic techniquesis established on the registered collection spectra of the plasma flare generated by high power lasers. We examined the impact of altered experimental parameters to enhancethe sensitivity of our system. Moreover, the LISAToutcome accuracy in evaluating the heavy metals concentration in solid waste residues was validated using ICP/OES system. The predicted LISAT results werefound goodmatching with the ICP/OES results. The influence of parameters like liquid/solid, mixing time,digestion temperature,concentrations of acid and alkali on heavy metals recovery was also studied. The proposed protocols elucidated that the brilliant profit of LISAT for identifying of valuable metalspresent in solid waste residue sample surface and for examining the quality and purity of recovering metal manufactures.

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Identification Of Nuclear Mass Range Of Primary Event From The Observation Of Shower In Ultra High Energetic Cosmic Rays At Energy ~ 106gev

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. H. M. Soleiman, S. S. Abdel-Aziz, A. Abdelfattah Omar

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Dynamic of molecules in ultrathin C60 film

U+1F5122019-04-22
Bozhko S.I.

The motion of single atoms or molecules plays an important role in nanoscale engineering at the single atomic or molecular scale. Effect of molecule center mass displacement on conductivity of C60 based junction has been previously reported [1].Understanding of molecular motion is crucial to further progress in molecule-based nano-electronic devices.The symmetry and deviations from a spherical shape of the C60 molecule generate the rotational degrees of freedom which often determine physical and structural properties of compounds, C60 based clusters and crystal. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is one of the most promising techniques for imaging of prototype molecular devices and testing their properties. We employed STM to reveal switching of individual C60 between different orientations within a single molecular layer grown on the WO2/W (110)surface(Fig. 1a-e). Switching of the molecule between orientations resulted in a telegraph noise in tunneling current (Fig. 1d) or in Z position of STM probe. Statistics of switching has been used to determine energy gap and potential barrier height between two adjacent orientations of the molecule. Rotational transitions in single molecular layer of C60 were also studied. STM experiments were performedin temperature range 80K-320K.Rotational first order phase transition at TC=260Khas been established [2].Above that temperature molecules continuously rotate around their centres of mass whereas below TC the rotational degree of freedom is suppressed and C60 molecules undergo thermally activated switches between closely positionedin energy orientations. The rate of jumps rapidly decreases with decreasing temperature and at 220 K the molecules stay in each state for longer than the time of a possible experiment. Therefore a kinetic glassy transition can be identified at 220 K.The glassy transition and nonexponential relaxation in solid C60 are due to the freezing of weakly correlated orientations of nearest-neighbor molecules.The large number of different molecular orientations observed in the film results in an averaging-out of the interaction potentials and should cause Arrhenius-like relaxation processes. However, STM experiments reveal correlations in the nanomotion of the C60 molecules that suggest arguments in favor of a constrain-dynamic scenario.The observation of a glassy transition at 220 K reveals a nonexponential relaxation in the C60 monolayer. The Kauzmann temperature was estimated to be 45 K.Link of dynamics of individual molecules to the rotational transitions in the overall film discussed in a frame of mean field theory.


[1]Hongkun Park, et.al., Nanomechanical oscillationsin a single-C60 transistor,Nature, 407, 57, 2000; N.Neel, et.al. Two-level conductance fluctuations of a single-molecule junction, Nano letters, 2011, 11, 3593
[2] Sergey I. Bozhko et.al. Rotational transitions in a C60monolayer on the WO2/W(110) surface, Phys. Rev. B. 84,195412, (2011)

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Green and Novel Structure for Wastewater Treatment: Spectroscopic and Modeling Approaches

U+1F5122019-04-22
Medhat Ibrahim

Inorganic pollutants such as heavy metals find their way to the aquatic environment as a result of manmade activities. As a result of inadequate treatments such pollutants could be accumulated, which is in turn one of the well-known reasons for hazardous effects as they easily interact with the biological chain. New trends in controlling heavy metals are needed especially those of green origin.Among green methods for treatment of inorganic pollutants, phytoremediation is recommended owing to its green origin. Simply, it could be defined as using the plant in such a limited way as it could return the metals back to the environment.Natural polymerswith dried water hyacinth are prepared in the form of microspheres for the remediationofheavy metals from wastewater. A patenthas beengranted in which microspheresare prepared from chitosan/water hyacinth. As chitosan is expensive, it was further replaced by sodium alginate, and thensolar drying system in addition to solar power is replacing electricity to minimize cost and save energy. The produced microsphereshave then becomecost effective and could remove inorganic pollutantsfrom wastewater without returningit back to the environment. The present talk will summarize the spectroscopic and modeling approaches in our group to prepare water hyacinth/natural polymers microspheres for the remediation of heavy metals.

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Angular Distribution and Transverse Momenta of Projectile Fragments of Oxygen Nucleus Collided With Emulsion at 3.7A GeV

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. S. El-Nagdy1, A. Abdelsalam2, A. M. Abdalla3 , B. M. Badawy4, and A. Saber3

Transverse-momentum distributions of the residual charges due fragmentation of 16O projectile nucleus with emulsion at 3.7A GeV are investigated. The experimental parameters that study the mechanism responsible for projectile fragmentation are discussed. The angular distributions of all possible charges due to projectile fragmentations for 16O nucleus are recorded and compared that obtained for 12C, 22Ne, 24Mg and 28Si at the same collision momentum. The effects of target size on fragmentation process for both 16O and 24Mg projectiles are studied. The experimental results show that there is unified mechanism of projectile fragmentation in this range of masses and energy.

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TOWARDS A GREEN WORLD: THE POWER OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

U+1F5122019-04-22
Heba Mohamed Fahmy

The safety of the environment leads to better quality of life to all the creatures. Nanotechnology is now intervening in many applications such as: industrial, medical, agricultural fields and no one can imagine the current world without the different applications of nanotechnology which greatly enhanced our life style. Nanotechnological products, procedures and applications are needed to contribute significantly to environmental and climate protection by saving raw materials, energy and water as well as by cutting greenhouse gases and hazardous wastes. Using nanomaterials therefore promises certain environmental benefits and sustainability effects. Even so, nanotechnology currently plays a rather subordinate role in environmental security, whether it be in research or in practical applications. In this talk, I will start my speech by pointing out what did we expected from this technology and whether our expectations come true or not. I will give special attention for talking about the dark sides of nanotechnology and how nanotechnology can lead to negative impact on the environment. I will end my talk by pointing out the benefits of nanotechnology to the environment with giving specific examples for that, such as: obtaining new and cheap new energy sources, recycling some hazardous materials and returning them into beneficial products. I believe that greener environment equals better future and easier life.

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Simulation of Fusion Reaction of Ultra High Power Laser Accelerated Protons with Boron Nuclei

U+1F5122019-04-22
Lotfia El Nadi 1,2 , Magdy M. Omar 1, Dalia Osman 1,3

In the process of the interaction of Ultra Intense Laser UIL beams with Plastic targets, it was proved to efficiently bunch accelerated Hydrogen ions [1, 2]. The efficient Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) mechanism [3, 4, 5, 6] for laserbased ion acceleration, could explain the production of bunches of solid state density through the hole-boring mode [7]. Allowing such dense bunches of Hydrogen ions i.e. protons to impinge on a second thicker Borated Polyethylene target would easily result in fusion of the UIL Laser accelerated protons with the B11 nuclei, resulting in highly excited fused carbon nuclei. Such fused species would soon disintegrate by evaporating light particles or by fission into relatively lighter fragments. In this scenario the first target could well be polyethylene foil of thickness less than 500 μm and would be considered the source of the accelerated Hydrogen ions or protons. -The second target would be expected to contain C12 compound nuclei by p1 + B11 ----. C 12* fusion as well as lighter nuclei due to fission of C 12* nuclei. In the following we propose to estimate the possibility of producing important non emitting neutron nuclei such as B isotopes and or Alpha particles in the second Borated polyethylene target. Simulation of fusion, followed by particles evaporation, is elaborated applying Mont Carlo code PACE-4 [8]. In this Contest a planned experiment will be briefly introduced, where the production of such nuclei and the experiment to measure their properties will be elaborated.

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Fabrication and Optical characterization of Ultrathin Graphene Oxide thin Films Using an Integrated technique between Layer-by-Layer Assembled and Spin Coating methods

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. M. Saadeldin1*, Albert Guirguis1,2

Although the large-scale graphene oxide material production via bulky routes, graphene oxide (GO)still represents less than half of the global market. The primary reason behind this trend is the limitation of reconducting a homogeneous thin-film from scattered nanosheets that are generated with robust methods to match the industrial facilities. In this paper, a large -scale graphene oxide (GO) layers were synthesized by a simple facile technique through merging approach between the layerby- layer assembled (LBL) and spin coating (S) techniques. The growth conditions were also correlated with optical performance for three different GO accumulations, which the thin-film with 8 layer (GO8) showed adequate optical performance corresponding toa successful building layer fromGO flakes with minor defects. The crystalline, electronic, and morphologystructure of prepared GO films are confirmed via XRD, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and AFM respectively. Finally, these as-produced GO thin-films can increase the utility of GO usage in several applications.

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PRODUCTION NEUTRALINO AND TWO HIGGS BOSONS FROM ELECTRON-POSITRON ANNIHELATION VIA H0 AND Z 0 PROPAGATORS

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. M. Ahmed, and Zainab. A.H.

The cross-sections σ (pb), in electron (e-) - positron (e+) annihelation, are calculated over range of center of mass energy S (Gev) for the process: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ~ ( ) 5 0 4 0 2 0 1 3 e P e P H P H P P i j         .There are two groups of Feynman diagrams are taken into consideration depending on the types of the propagators, Group (a) Production of 0 i H , 0j H and ~0   , when and H0 are the propagators, and Group (b) Production of 0 i H , 0j H and ~0   , when H0 and are the propagators, where i, j  1,2,3, and  1,2,3,4 . There are(288) different possible situations. The cross sections for this process are calculated carefully according to a selected set of parameters. then graphed and tabulated, The production cross-sections values mechanisms can be detected as: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 0 2 0 2 4 0 1 3 e P e P H P P H P H P i j        . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 0 2 0 2 4 0 1 3 e P e P Z P P H P H P i j        . At S interval (1200 - 1600) Gev, the best value of σ is (28x10-2) Pb in group (a) . when each masses of Higss bosons ( 125 / 2 0 , m Gev c Hi j  ) and the Neutralino mass ( 700 / 2. ~0 m  Gev c   )

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Correlation between Structural and Electrical Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride in the Pure State and with some Additives at Different Temperatures

U+1F5122019-04-22
G. M. Nasr, L. M. Salah*, S. E. H. El-Massry

Synthetic (SrTiO₃) has a very large dielectric constant at room temperature and low electric field. Aiming to increase the dielectric constant of PVDF, a different amount of SrTiO3 are added to it. A correlation between structural changes and the physical properties of these composites was elucidated. The effect of doping with SrTiO3 on electrical conduction in PVDF was undertaken. The effect of SrTiO3 doping in PVDF on the dc electrical properties as well as the electrical conduction mechanisms was studied . The dielectric properties of PVDF as a function of SrTiO3 doping and both temperature and applied frequency was elucidated . Finally, the structural changes in PVDF matrix owing to SrTiO3 doping via IR and XRD spectroscopy was presented .

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Temperature Effect on the Performance of Diode Pumped Nd- Yag Solid State Laser System

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. Atta Khedr, E.Salam, G. E. Khalil, A. M. Abou-Elmagd

We had used a compact Nd:YAG solid state laser in our laser system which consists of: pumping diode laser, collimating lens, dichroic mirror, Nd:YAG crystal, saturable absorber, Q-switching, KTP crystal, infrared filter , output coupler mirror, heater, power meter and spectrometer. Measurements were carried out for power and intensity of the emitted laser beam together with the input power. The spectrum and the power of the diode excitation source has been examined before carrying out the experiment. Temperature effect was examined using a small oven for heating the laser Nd: YAG laser compact system using high accuracy temperature controller. We measured the output laser power and spectrum profile of laser wavelength at532 nm and 536.1 nm the second harmonic of 1064nm of Nd: YAG laser crystal at different temperatures 30-65centegrate. We obtained relation between temperature and laser power which reveals that we had an optimum output laser power at 35 and 40 degree centigrade .The optimum spectrum was found at the same pervious degrees. We obtained the laser efficiency at different temperatures.

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Fast Diagnoses of Cancer by Isotopic Variations Detection in Blood Samples Using Laser spectroscopic Technique

U+1F5122019-04-22
H. Imam 1, Ola. S. Ahmed2, Abdel-Rahman Zekri2, M. Hafaz1, Elsh. Omra1, G.Omar3

The early detection of cancer is of prime importance with respect to treatment and patient survival. Biopsy techniques that are currently employed for such diagnosis are invasive and time consuming.Isotopic analysis is essential in medicine, chemistry, materials science, radiochemistry, archeology, and nuclear non-proliferation.Isotopic data provide answers to fundamental questions related to research and development in these disciplines as well as providing important insight into more applied fields.A new method of performing optical isotopic analysis of condensed samples in ambient air and at ambient pressure will be developed: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS). This technique is currently a subject of great interest in spectroscopy and is being considered for the design of a field portable unit for nuclear safeguard inspection, because it allows a high level of portability and versatility while identifying the elements and materials of interest. The new method can determine not only chemical composition but also isotopic ratios of elements in the sample. Isotopic measurements are enabled by significantly larger isotopic shifts found in molecular spectra relative to atomic spectra. No sample preparation or pre-treatment is required. Detection of the isotopes of copper, zinc and sulfur will be discussed to illustrate the isotopes ratio of these elements as marker for cancer type. It is possible to build a model that enables the accurate determination of the isotopic ratio under conditions for elements of interest would not be achievable without the use of ultra-high resolution spectrometer. The performance obtained with such a LIBS sensor configuration demonstrates the possibility of integrating all of the required components in a small portable handheld system. That will lead to make the whole investigation of cancer type and grades using a new developed technique.

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Comparative study of the effect of fs, ps, ns Lasers on the gold, CdS thin films and Mo, TiUsing laser produced plasma (LPP) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD)

U+1F5122019-04-22
M. Atta Khedr1*, Naser Fathi1, Dalia Abdrabou2,5, Atef S. Gadalla1, T. Atwee3, H. M. Abd – Elmonem2, Y. Badr1, Ahmed. A. Khalil 1, H. Sharqawy2,Th. El – Sherbini2, Ali Hussien5 and M. Elnahass4

Pulsed laser deposition thin films (PLD) is used for preparing gold, and Cadmium Sulphid (CdS) thin films using different laser sources. Three types of lasers with different wavelengths and pulse duration time including thefemtosecond picosecond, and nanosecond (fs, ps, ns) are used for carrying these study. Nd-Yag laser 1064 nm and its double frequency pulses at 532 nm of 8 ns pulse duration time, ps laser pulse at 800 nm wavelength and 200 ps pulse duration time, fs laser pulse at 800 nm wavelength and 40 fs duration time are used. Nd – Yag Laser of 1064 nm is used for preparing CdS thin films under high vacuum 10-6 mbar. These thin films which are deposited by these three types of laser pulses are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Xray Spectroscopy (EDX) and XRD. The results are showed formation of gold particles for all the three laser pulses, but it was noticed gold thin films in case of femtosecond laser pulse are formed in more symmetric manner than in case of using the ps and ns laser pulses. The effect of increasing of the fs laser power has increased the thin film density. Photoconductivity, XRD of CdS thin films of different thickness and temperature are measured. laser produced plasma using Nd-yag Laser interaction with Titanium Ti and hollow cathode of Molybdenum (Mo) under applied electric field and without are carried out.Electric probe and faraday cup collecting charge are used in plasma diagnostics. The electron Temperature, Electron density, ion velocity distribution function of multi charged ions, ion temperature, ion density are obtained. Laser produced plasma spectroscopy (LPPS) of CdS, Titanium and MO has been measured which gave the high accuracy of the plasma parameters obtained.

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Correlation between Structural and Electrical Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride in the Pure State and with some Additives at Different Temperatures

U+1F5122019-04-21
G. M. Nasr, L. M. Salah*, S. E. H. El-Massry 1, Y.H. Elbashar3 and A.S. Abdel-Rahman1,3*

Internal friction is a very important mechanical property of matter which can be determined by many techniques, such as the pulse excitation technique and the torsional pendulum. In this paper we used the pulse excitation technique as it is non-contact, easy used and not affecting the sample, reliable, low cost, and accurate and suiting a wide variety of rubbery materials and elastomers. The samples chosen for this work is made of butadiene acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), which are loaded by different phr of N774 nanocarbon. The measured sample is prepared in form of 200 mm long string, having a homogenous circular cross-section of 3 mm diameter. A mechanical pulse is produced and delivered to the fixed end sample by mean of a punch from a small solenoid motor plunger. To generate a shadowgraph for the vibrating sample on a silicone photodiode, a laser beam is used. A storage oscilloscope is used to capture the natural resonance amplitude decay profile of the test sample from the obtained electric signal. The internal friction is obtained by mathematical analysis of the acquired data.

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Identification of Nuclear Mass Range of Primary Event From The Observation Of Shower In Ultra High Energetic Cosmic Rays At Energy ~ 106gev

U+1F5122019-04-21
M. H. M. Soleiman, S. S. Abdel-Aziz, A. Abdelfattah Omar A.

Identification of mass numbers concerning the nuclei beginning the ignition of the atmospheric extensive air showers (EAS) is vital in the studies of Ultra High Cosmic Rays Interactions (UHCRI). The present study introduces a simple technique in processing the shower data at the height of detector level (1400 m over sea-level) to identify the nucleus starting the cascade of the shower. CORSIKA 7.6400, which is the EAS-generator is used to generate EAS data at detection level of 1400 m over sea-level and incidence energy ~ 106GeV. The data are analyzed and the energy spectrum is obtained for the generated EAS. The EAS spectra for light nuclei (1H and 4He), medium nuclei (24Mg), and Heavy nuclei (48Ti, 52Cr, Fe) are obtained, totally and with photons are subtracted. It is found that, the spectral slopes of the tail of the spectra with photons subtracted depend on the primary nuclei’s mass-number. Keywords: Ultra High Cosmic Rays Interactions (UHCRI), primary event nuclei, CORSIKA, extensive air showers (EAS), spectral tail.

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Graphenegrowth on Cu foil andNi/Cu surfaceat low temperatures by pulsed laser deposition

U+1F5122019-04-21
Mohamed A. Hafez1*, Iftitan M. Azzouz1, Abd Elhamid M. Abd Elhamid1, Abdelnaser M. Aboulfotouh2

Graphene has attracted much of interest due to its remarkablephysical, optical, and electronic properties. The outstanding features of graphene such as high mechanical strength, quantum electronic transport, and tunable bandgap have multiple applications in industry and electronic devices. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD)is a versatile technique and got considerable impulsion because of its applications in the synthesis of high quality single crystalline materials of technological significance. In this work,study of graphene growth on commercial Cu foil and Ni/Cu surface substrates under high vacuum were carried out by Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm and laser energy of50 mJ. The base pressure during the deposition was ~1×10-5 Torr.Effects of growth conditions; temperature, surface structure, and cooling rate on the ability to fabricate graphene layers were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD).PLD growth of graphene layers indicated that surface mediated growth have a catalytic role despite of the presence of Cu(200) and Cu(111) facets. Raman spectra indicate that synthesis graphene layers rely on the surface quality of substrate together with the proper cooling profile coupled with graphene growth temperature. Surface mediated growth of graphene on Cu foil substrate revealed to have favorable catalytic effect. The results show dependent of the grown graphene on how PLD introduced Ni into Cu substrate, which was relied on the laser energy and substrate heating procedure. This work suggests that PLD growth can be integrated with other deposition systems to have the selection to fabricate graphene for the required applications. Details of few layers graphene growth successfully at low temperatures are given and discussed.

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Studying the difference between solar and astronomical twilight using image analysis

U+1F5122019-04-21
Ramy Mawad 1, Magda Farghaly 2, A. H. Hassan 2 , Walid Abdel-Sattat 3, Hussien M. Farid 3, Shahinaz Yousef 3, M. Amin 3

Studying the types of observed twilights according to image analysis taken by Canon EOS 20D camera were carried out during 13-16 Jan 2016 in Aswan Egypt (desert land). It is found that there are two types of twilights. A) Astronomical twilight called also Pseudo-Dawn (non-thread bright): caused by Zodiacal light or the solar radiation reflection from the asteroid belt, and interplanetary matter when the solar depression is approximately in the range 19.5°-16.5° (18° in average). It is not appeared in all days of our study, it appeared only in days 14 and 15 when solar depression angles were -17.54° and -18.88° respectively. B) Solar twilight (morning white thread): produced from the solar radiation directly at the depression angle of the Sun is nearby 15° before sunrise and 16° after sunset. Solar twilight occurred when the Sun's depression angle at -15.56° -15.56°, 14.93°, -15.38°, -14.53° in the current studying period. Starting time of the solar twilight is slightly different from naked eye, about ~1°. It is found that the astronomical twilight starts brighter and vertically wider than solar twilight. Astronomical twilight starts at altitude 8° with vertical thickness ~30°, while solar twilight starts at altitude ~3° with thickness about 1-2° only. The solar twilight of the morning can be divided into three stages: a) Darkness (Fajr) occurs at a depression angle of the Sun nearby change to about (16° - 12°). b) Semi-darkness stage (Ghalas): in-between stage, occurs at a depression angle nearby change to about (12° - 5°). Twilight has a grey color. c) Lightning stage (Isfar): pre-rising, occurs at a depression angle nearby change to about (5°-0°) with reddish twilight color. Because of the difference in mesospheric thickness, temperature and composition at sunrise and sunset occurrence, twilight color starts white for sunrise twilight and ends red for sunset twilight.

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Crystal Structure, Characterization and Physical Properties of some 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites of The Formula [NH3-(CH2)n-NH3]MCl4, M = Co, Mn, n = 4, 5, 9

U+1F5122019-04-21
S. K. Abdel-Aal1*, A. S. Abdel-Rahman1, G. Faigel2, K. Kamaras2, A. Ionov3

Great attention has been devoted to the preparation and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHs). These advanced materials can provide low cost materials for self assembly quantum well applications, fuel, solar cells, batteries, electronic and optoelectronic applications. Diammonium halide perovskite hybrids [NH3(CH2)nNH3]MClxBr4-x ; x= 0, 2, 4; M= Co, Mn, Cu allow mixing of organic and inorganic components in one molecule which possesses a property that may not exist in either of the parent components. Possibilities could elaborate hybrid materials in terms of processing new chemical and physical properties according to the application needed. Single crystals were prepared by slow evaporation. The complete structure information as well as lattice parameters for Co hybrid n= 4-5 are provided, and n = 5 - 6 for Mn hybrid. Differential thermal analysis DSC shows reversible solid-solid phase transition for both the Co and Mn hybrids. Permittivity studies confirm the phase transition. FTIR at different temperature are discussed. Electronic structure and chemical bonding in Co, Mn OIHs were studied by X-ray (XPS) photoemission spectroscopy. All elements of Co and Mn organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites were found in XPS spectra and can be related to the peaks of N1s, C1s, Co2p, Mn2p and Cl2p. Wide peak of C1s spectra was related to the chemically unequivalent C atoms in the compounds. The spectrum of the N1s level with binding energies of 401.2 eV was assigned to NH3-group. The analysis of Co2p states in Co OIHs compounds shows the divalent state of Co with a typical satellite structure.

Acknowledgment ASRT-Hungarian Academy of science funding.

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EFFECT OF COLD PLASMA ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DPPC LIPOSOMES

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M Fahmy*, Asmaa A Hassan, Ghada F Abdelfatah, Salma Y Mohamed, Mohamed H Gaber

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has many promising applications in biomedical engineering, dentistry and oncology. This study investigates the effect of CAP on 1,2- dipalmitoyl-Sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes prepared by the thin film hydration method which are used as a model for lipid bilayer membrane. DPPC liposomes were exposed to cold plasma 2, 3 and 5 minutes. The effects of cold plasma on DPPC characterization parameters such as size, charge, FTIR absorption spectrum, UV-visible spectrum and phase transition temperatures were investigated. Exposure of DPPC liposomes to CAP led to an increment in the size and stability of liposomes by increasing the exposure time. 2-min CAP exposure was found to increase liposomal size through particle aggregation, whereas, 3 and 5 min exposure increases the liposome size via adsorption of negative species emerging from CAP on their surfaces. As depicted from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, the electrostatic interaction between the CAP species and phospholipids acyl groups of DPPC resulted in the change of DPPC conformation. The hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules arranged more closer, especially with increasing the exposure time. Thus, it can be concluded that CAP alters the physical and chemical characteristics of DPPC liposomes.

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The potentiation of the antidepressant effect of Thymoquinone by loading it on Chitosan nanoparticles coated with polysorbate 80

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M Fahmy1, Yasser A Khardrawy2, Taiseer M Abd-El Daim1, Amena S Elfeky1, Amera A Abd Rabo1, Amira B Mustafa1, Islam T Mostafa1

The present study aims to evaluate the antidepressant effect of different formulations of Thymoquinone; free Thymoquinone (TQ), Thymoquinone-loaded Chitosan nanoparticles (TQ-TPP-Cs NPs) and Thymoquinone-loaded Chitosan nanoparticles coated with polysorbate 80 (TQ-TPP-Cs NPs-PSb80) that have been prepared to avoid the low bioavailability of TQ. Rats were randomly divided into control rats, rat model of depression induced by reserpine, rat model treated with TQ, rat model treated with TQ-TPP-Cs NPs and rat model treated with TQTPP- Cs NPs-PSb80. The prepared formulationswere characterized for size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release before their use in treatment. The transmission electron microscope analysisconfirmed that TQTPP- Cs NPs and TQ-TPP-Cs NPs-PSb80 were nearly spherical, having sizes of 44±1.9 and 74.66±5.6, respectively. The mean zeta potential for TQ-TPP-Cs NPs and TQ-TPP-Cs NPs-PSb80 was 30.9±3.02 mV and 3.89±2.23 mV, respectively. The TQ encapsulation efficiencies for TQ-TPP-Cs NPs and TQ-TPP-Cs NPs-PSb80 were 75.67% ± 17.03and 85.61% ± 1.02, respectively, while the loading capacities were 14.093% ± 4.61 and 16.26% ± 1.2 for TQ-TPP-Cs NPs and TQTPP- Cs NPs-PSb80, respectively. The release of TQ from TQ-TPP-Cs NPs and TQTPP- Cs NPs-PSb80 was rapid during the first 4 hrs and was followed by a sharp decrease during the next 72 hrs. Reserpine induced a decrease in motor activity and swimming time and increased immobility time as indicated from the open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST). In addition, a significant decrease in the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) was recorded in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum of reserpine-treated rats. The results indicate that TQ-TPP-Cs NPs loaded with polysorbate 80 was more efficient in ameliorating the behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by reserpine than TQ and TQ-TPP-Cs NPs. The present data suggest that the antidepressant efficacy of TQ could be enhanced by loading it on Chitosan nanoparticles coated with polysorbate 80.

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EVALUATION OF THE POTENCY OF CHITOSAN-PALM POLLEN MIXTURE ON INCREASING THE FRUITS SHELF TIME

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M. Fahmy1, Amena Sayed 1, Soha Salah2, Fatma Mohamed3, Aya Allah Ashraf4, ALaa Ali5

The balance between preserving food as economic solution and keeping nutrient con-tent is a real challenge. However The unique criteria of Chitosan made it a promising solution, that’s why we intent to preserve mandarin orange and banana fruit from oxidative damage, microbial growth and, microbial toxins for relatively long period by coating fruits with a coat using low and high molecular weight Chitosan-antimicrobial and biodegradable material with different concentrations along with the extract in one hand and with palm pollen grains extract in another one and comparing the influence of those additives on contaminated and uncontaminated fruits to investigate whether they will be protected from fast deterioration at room temperature or not. We hope to be able to ex-tend the shelf life of the fruit, keeping its nutritive value and protecting it from fungal contamination. The positive achievement out of this investigation may be generalized further to include different fruits and vegetables preserved in their very nature form.

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DIELECTRIC SPECTROSCOPY SIGNATURE FOR CANCER DIAGNOSIS

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy 1, Amany Mohamed Hamad 1, Fatma Al-zahraa Sayed Mohammed 1, Esraa Samy Abu Serea 2, Youssef Salah Mohamed 3, Amany Bahaa El-Din Mustafa 4, Ayat Mosstafa Saadeldin 5, Maha Amir Mohammed 1

The effective clinical management of cancer is entirely dependent on the detection at a suitable early time as well as on the proper diagnosis. The main aim of this review is to survey the applications of dielectric spectroscopy in the clinical cancer diagnosis and distinguishing between normal and tumor tissues. This review focuses on recognition of the biophysical properties of normal and malignant tissues and also of biophysical changes elicited by cancers comprising (breast, liver, thyroid gland, lung, skin, prostate, and bladder) tumors. These biophysical changes are often produced because of the difference in tissue composition, blood flow, and architecture between normal and malignant cells. From the literature, it has been observed that dielectric spectroscopy method can be applied before, during or after tumor surgery; and most of the results are confirmed by conventional analysis such as histopathology. Moreover, by dielectric spectroscopy technique, dielectric parameters, especially conductivity and permittivity were suggested to be biomarkers for discrimination cancerous patients of the mentioned cancer types. It could be concluded that dielectric spectroscopy rapidly provides the biophysical status of normal tissues and cancerous ones and thus can be applied effectively for the early diagnosis and detection of cancers.

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ELECTROPORATION AS A NOVEL METHOD FOR FLUOXETINE LOADING

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy 1, Aya Allah ashrafshafie2, Abeer Ashraf Abdelmokhtar1 , Mohamed Hamdy Mahmoud1, Yousra Mohamed Yousef2, Abdelaziz Habib Mohamed1, Asmaa Mamdouh Ahmed2, Naglaa Abd El-Monaem Taha3, Fatma El-Zahra Mahmoud Hassan2, Fayrouz Ali Muhammad4 , Esraa Mohammed Abd Al-Mohsen 5.

For the treatment of diseases, not only the drug industry is important, but how to target the drug to the affected area with minimal damage and the highest concentration is what scientists are interested in. This project aims to apply a more effective and less expensive method of delivery of fluoxetine (FLX) which is used as a treatment for depression but has terrible side effects on the human body. The method depends on applying the technique of electroporation on FLXloaded liposome. The project is divided into two phases, the first is to enter FLX into non-doped DPPC-liposome using electroporation, and the second phase is the use of electroporation for the entrance of FLX into DPPC liposome doped with silver nanoparticles. The present study extends also to compare the results of the two phases and find out which method and what kind of liposome is better to transport the drug with higher encapsulation efficiency.

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Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Thymoquinone-Encapsulated Dppc Liposome for the Inhibition of Prostate and Laryngeal Cancer Cells

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy, Nada Reda Abd Elkader, Taiseer Mohamed Abd Eldaim, Ayaat Mahmoud Mosleh, Omnia Eid Ali, Latifa Helmy Ahmed Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

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BIODISTRIBUTION AND TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES IN THE RAT BRAIN

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M Fahmy*,Omnia A Ali, Asmaa A Hassan, Faten A Mahmoud, Fatma M Abdelrahman, MariamMAbu El-fotouh

The increase in the usage of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in the industrial and medical fields has raised concerns about their possible adverse effects. The present study aims to investigate the potential adverse effects of CuNPs on the brain of adult male Wistar rats through the estimation of some oxidative stress parameters and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity.CuNPs were prepared and characterized using different techniques: Dynamic Light Scattering, XRay Diffraction, Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy, in addition to Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Rats were divided into two groups: CuNPs-treated group (IV injected with 15 mg/kg ˷ 13 nm CuNPs for 2 successive days) and a control group (injected with saline). Rats of the 2 groups were decapitated simultaneously after 48 hours of the last injection. The Cu content in different brain areas was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Moreover, the effect of CuNPs on brain edema was evaluated.The behavior of rats in an open-field was also examined 24 hours post the last injection.Significant increases of Cu content in the cortex, cerebellum, striatum, thalamus and hippocampus was found. Moreover, CuNPs lead to the induction of oxidative stress condition in the thalamus, hypothamaus and medulla. In addition, CuNPs induced significant increases in AChE activity in the medulla, hippocampus, striatum besides midbrain. CuNPs-injected rats showed alsodecreased exploratory behaviour.The results obtained in the present study point to the importance of toxicity assessments in evaluating the efficiency of CuNPs for the safe implementation in different applications.

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Grape seed derivatives in cancer treatment

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy Abdelbaky1, Mostafa Mohamed Ahmed Sayed2, Fatma Mohamed Fouad3, Alaa Ali4, Soha salah abdelhamied5, latifa Helmy Ahmed6, Ayat Mosstafa Saadeldin7

In the last decades, there is an increasing concern to new and safe medications to treat cancer which is becoming a widespread problem all over the world. Grape seed extracts proved to have a role in the management of cancer, they enhance the effect of chemo adjuvant treatment or prevent progression. Previous work demonstrated that Grape seed derivatives likeprocyandine B23,3"-di-o-gallate showed a great effect in the treatment of prostate cancer. Resveratrol, which is considered, asis a type of polyphenols had proved therapeutic potential against colon cancer, in addition, Alphalinolenic acid showed promising effects in the treatment of skin, breast and esophageal cancers. Moreover, polyphenols demonstrated a success in the treatment of different types of cancer and their effects was dose and time dependent. The present work reviewsa number of previous studies that used grape seed or one of its derivatives in the management of cancer.

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HEAVY METALS TOXICITY ON CHILDREN AND INFANTS

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy 1*,Esraa Samy Abu Serea 2, Loay Hassan Ahmed 3, Hager Hassanin Elmorsy4, Eman Mohamed Salama5 , Aya Allah ashraf shafie2,Fatima Ayman Alhafiry 6 , Naglaa Abdel Monaem Taha 7

Heavy metals are environmental elements with toxic properties for humans and wildlife. Children are more vulnerable to heavy metal toxicity, the exposure can be occur in nature through inhalation or food intake. There are many risks due to this exposure to the children causing diseases depends on the route of exposure and the kind of metal. The aim of this review is to show the effect of heavy metals exposure to children in different cases of exposure and several heavy metals such as Cd, Ni, Cr, As, Se, and Pb and to determine the diseases can happen to infants and newborn and how the heavy metal can transfer from mother to fetus through placenta during pregnancy. Autism is an example of the dangerous diseases result from the highly exposure of heavy metals. Other side effects of heavy metal exposure are birth weight and dermal diseases. the main purpose of this review is to show the connection between the heavy metal and the toxic effect on children. By using a cross sectional studies to show how exposure of heavy metal to mothers plays a very important role on children health, as mother milk can be source of heavy metals to infants as example. This review collected many different studies in many areas with different metals on the last ten years approximately to enable us found all prospective of this important issues.

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In-Vitro Evaluation of Copper Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity in Normal and Cancer Lung Cell Lines

U+1F5122019-04-21
Nashwa Moatez Ebrahim 1, Heba Mohamed Fahmy 2, Mohamed Hassanin Gaber 3

In-vitro evaluation of copper nanoparticles cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in normal and cancer lung cell lines Abstract Nanotoxicology is a major field study that reveals the importance and hazard effects of nanomaterials on the living cells and tissues. In vitro studies on biological cell lines allow more control and observation along the experiment time. In the present study, Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were prepared by chemical reduction method. Then, characterization was done by different physical techniques such as: Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). As the respiration of freshly pure air is a vital process, lung cell lines have been chosen as the scope of this study. Evaluation of the toxicity of Cu NPs was performed on 2 types of cells: the human diploid lung fibroblast normal cell lines (WI-38 cells) and the human epithelial lung carcinoma cell (A549 cells). In order to assess the toxicity of the prepared Cu NPs, the two cell types were exposed to 10 mg/ml serial diluted Cu NPs for 72 hrs. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of Cu NPs for both cell types was separately determined and used to examine the cell genotoxicity (Comet assay) concurrently with some oxidative stress parameters such as nitric oxide (NO), glutathione reduced (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Physical characterization of Cu NPs revealed that there were spherical in shape with an average size of 19.94 ± 3.80 nm. Cu NPs suppressed the proliferation and viability of normal and carcinoma lung cells. Treatment of both cell types with their IC50’s of Cu NPs resulted in DNA damage besides the generation of reactive oxygen species xi (ROS) and consequently a generation of a state of oxidative stress. Overall, it can be concluded that the IC50's of the prepared Cu NPs were cytotoxic and genotoxic to both normal and cancerous lung cells. Keywords: Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs), human lung normal cell lines (WI- 38 cells), human lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 cells), toxicity, oxidative stress, comet assay, DNA.

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Thin Film Applications in Wound Healing

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy1; Nashwa MoatezEbrahim٢; AlaaWesal Abd Ellatef٣; Mariam Hisham Mohamed ٤; Fayrouz Ali el Baioumy٥; Asmaa Mamdouh Ahmed٦; Marwa Ahmed Abd Elazim٧; Alaa Mohammed Alaam٨; Mohamed Hamdy Mahmoud9

Wound healing becomes more efficient and easier by the aid of thin films. Gelatin production of thin films used for wound dressing is due to its high curative effect, antibacterial and the easy way to form it as a thin film. Many studies were made on bacterial cultures to uncover the role of the gelatin thin films in the wound healing treatment process. Silk/gelatin (S/G) film displays excellent mechanical properties which is essential for wound healing applications which cannot be obtained from sole gelatin film.Collagen is mostly found in fibrous tissues. It is important in tissue engineering and cosmetic medicine. Collagen films which are prepared from Brazilian propolis or chitosan have a good effect in improving wound healing process when it works as wound dressing for dermal burn healing. One of the gel for wound healing purposes is Aloe vera gel which enhances the degree of collagen cross-linking and the synthesis of collagen after topical and systemic administration in wounds created in a diabetic rat model. Aloe vera-Ca-alginate films shows intrinsic properties of wound healing process like the flexibility and high transparency.Chitosan is a cationic natural polymer and a natural polysaccharide that has been used for years in wound healing because of its ability to stimulate healing process, being nontoxic and has biodegradable properties.The properties of chitosan can be developed by incorporating it with substances which have properties that can increase the efficiency of chitosan. These substances are like thyme oil, ECM from porcine omentum and also by using castor oil as matrix material in the production of biocompatible and biodegradable non composite film containing chitosan modified ZnO nanoparticle, curcumin, as gelatin, tourmaline, polyvinyl alcohol/sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, Poly (vinyl alcohol), Methoxy-poly (ethylene glycol) etcand with others to improve efficiency of chitosan film in wound healing process.After the preparation of the previously mentioned thin films, some tests are carried on to show how these thin films affect wound healing process like characterization of films by FTIR, SEM. Also, for each thin film type, physical properties: like: water vapor permeability, oxygen transmission rate, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity are studied.In vivo and Vitro experiments demonstrated that these films showed antibacterial activity, decrease in wound size, low swelling behavior, nontoxicity and tissue repairing etc.

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Multifunctional Nanoparticles in Stem Cell Therapy for Cellular Treating of Kidney and Liver Disease

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba Mohamed Fahmy 1, EngyMaged Mohamed 2, Taiseer Mohamed Abd El-Daim 1, Amira Bahaa El Din 1, Heba Allah Abd El Nabi Eid 3, Esraa Ahmed Abu El qassem 4, Eman Ahmed Sayed 5, Doaa Ibrahim Maihop 1, Aisha Edress Abd Elkhaleq 1, Dalia Mahmoud Ezzat 6, Fatma El-zahraa Mahmoud Hassan 3, Fatma Mohammed Ali 4

Advances in stem cell treatment and nanotechnology have been considered as great promising destination for developing new strategies in regenerative medicine applications such as liver and kidney repairing. From previous studies, this review will focus on stem cells that can be divided into Embryonic stem cell, Adult stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell MSC, Induced pluripotent stem cell IPS, and their remarkable abilities to regenerate different damaged tissues, also discussing types of nanoparticles such as silver, gold, quantum dots, silica and iron oxide, and their effects on stem cell viability, differentiation, proliferation and cytotoxicity. The aim of overview is elucidating the mechanisms of internalizing nanoparticles in stem cells via providing analysis of the methods used in exploring the migration routes of stem cells and their reciprocity with microenvironment target in the body and tracking the fate of exogenously transplanted stem cells by using non-invasive techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging MRI, multimodality tracking, optical imaging and nuclear medicine imaging, which designed to follow up stem cell migration. However, MRI is greatly used in stem cell tracking and seems to be the most favorable tool for dynamically observation in vivo cell. Labeling of stem cells with nanoparticles overcame the problems in homing and guiding to desired site to be treated. The current understanding of stem cell migration to the site of injury in vivo and in vitro is almost achieved. This article will explain the distinctive strategies that were mentioned in previous researches such as: 1-enhancing homing of labeled stem cells with nanoparticles into damaged hepatic and renal tissues through inducing specific gene into stem cell, various chemokines and applying external magnetic field. 2-How to improve nanoparticles uptake by using transfection agents or covalently binding an exogenous protein or conjugating a receptor-specific monoclonal antibody. 3-contains stem cell labeling methods as extracellular labeling. Ultimately, our review indicates trails of researchers in nanoparticles utilization in stem cell therapy in both kidney and liver diseases.

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Electrical and Mechanical Characterization of Vulcanized natural Rubber Filled with BaTiO3 Ceramic-Filler

U+1F5122019-04-21
Abear Abullah El-Gamal

Ceramic-rubber composites made of natural rubber (NR) loaded with various concentrations of BaTiO3 particles were prepared by mixing and hot pressing. A silane coupling agent (KH-570) was utilized to modify the BaTiO3 particles surface. The successful attachment of the coupling agent to the BaTiO3 particles was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The influence of surface modified BaTiO3 (SMBT) particles concentration on the morphological, cure, mechanical, and electrical properties of the resulting samples was explored. The elongation at break and the tensile strength decreased with the addition of SMBT particles, while the hardness of composites increased. An enhancement of the dielectric constant ( ε ′ ) of the composites was observed by incorporation of SMBT particles. The measured ε ′ of the composites was modeled using the theories of a heterogeneous medium. The dielectric loss showed a clear peak at high frequency, indicating the relaxation process of the orientational polarization.

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Spectroscopy Study for the Structure Characterization of Chitosan/Montmorillonite nanocomposite With Different Loads

U+1F5122019-04-21
A. M. Shehap 1, M. A. Mahfouz 1*, Rabab A. Nasr 2, A. M. Ismail 3

Chitosan biopolymer and the montmorillonitenanoclay(MMT) are prepared in form of thin films by casting technique with different weight percentage(10,20,30,40,50,60,70 %) of MMT/Chitosan. Sonication method is used to obtain well dispersion as possible of MMT into chitosan.XRD,IR,UV/visible and thermal studies have been used to investigate the structural changes and the thermal stabilities for these high doping samples in order to be applicable for certain applications. The XRD confirms the existence of the interaction between chitosan and MMT and the IR showed the disappearance of some bands and the displacement of amid groups and the changes of intensities of the IR spectra that support the existence of structure changes depending upon the percentage of the load of MMT in Chitosan .The UV visible spectra showed certain absorption bands in the UV ranges at the low percentage of MMT as well as an evidence of theplasmon effect at high loading. The optical parameters such as the absorption edge,optical band energy and the refractive index are estimated for the different samples. The thermal analysis such as DSC and derivative TGA data are used to calculate the thermodynamic parameters through the decomposition processes that provide an evidence of the thermal stability and the complexion between nanoclay and Chitosan.

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Influence of Er3+ Ion on the Samarium Environment in Phosphate Glasses

U+1F5122019-04-21
Aya. AbdelBakey 1*, M. A. Farag 2, M. El-Okr 2, T. Y. ElRasasi 3, M. K. El-Mansy 3

Samarium zinc sodium phosphate glasses doped by different Er2O3 concentrations were prepared using conventional melt quenching technique. The structural properties due to the influence of Er+3 ions on the presented glass network were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirm the amorphousity of the samples.Surface morphology and elemental composition of glasses were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) accompanying withElectron Dispersive spectra (EDX).The measured density , Molar volume,ion concentration, interatomic distance, polaron radius and field strength had been studied with respect to the concentration of Er+3. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that Q1 and Q2 were the mean structural units of these glasses and revealed the formation of Non-Bridging oxygen (NBO).

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Searching for Nuclear Magic Numbers Close to Two-Protons and Two-Neutrons Drip Lines in Super and Ultra Heavy Regions

U+1F5122019-04-21
Mahmoud Yahia Ismail, Ali Yahia Ellithi, Hisham Anwer, Alaa Khaled Mahmoud

Recent researches carried out on the magicity of heavy and superheavy nuclei, some of them extend the interest to the ultra heavy regions. Our concern is the magicity of protons and neutrons in super and ultra heavy regions. Using Strutinsky's approach, and consider the shell correlation, residual pairing correction, two-nucleons separation energies and two-nucleons energy gap for even-even nuclei along Beta stability line and two-neutrons drip lines, over the ranges 70 ≥ Z ≥ 274 and 80 ≥ N ≥ 548 and 70 ≥ Z ≥ 212 and 126 ≥ N ≥ 548, respectively. We obtain the protons and neutrons magic numbers in these two regions, the new magic numbers are defined by Green's formula. Thecalculations is based on spherical structure of the nuclei considered and present evidences on new spherical magic nuclei in super and ultra heavy regions.

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Thin Film Applications in Wound Healing

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M. Fahmy1,AlaaWesal Abd Ellatef2,Alaa M. Elsayed3,Asmaa Mamdouh Ahmed1,M.Hamdy El-Hakim1,Fayrouz Ali el Baioumy5, MarwaA. Abd Elazim6

Wound healing becomes more efficient and easier by the aid of thin films. Gelatin production of thin films used for wound dressing is due to its high curative effect, antibacterial and the easy way to form it as a thin film. Many studies were made on bacterial cultures to uncover the role of the gelatin thin films in the wound healing treatment process.Silk/gelatin (S/G) film displays excellent mechanical properties which is essential for wound healing applications which cannot be obtained from sole gelatin film. Collagen films have a good effect in improving wound healing process. One of the gel for wound healing purposes is Aloe vera gel which enhances the degree of collagen cross-linking and the synthesis of collagen after topical and systemic administration in wounds created in a diabetic rat model. Aloe vera-Ca-alginate films shows intrinsic properties of wound healing process like the flexibility and high transparency.Chitosan has been used for years in wound healing because of its ability to stimulate healing process, being nontoxic and has biodegradable properties. After the preparation of the previously mentioned thin films, some tests are carried on to show how these thin films affect wound healing process like characterization of films by FTIR, SEM. Also, for each thin film type, physical properties: like: water vapour permeability, oxygen transmission rate, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity are studied.In vivo and Vitro experiments demonstrated that these films showed antibacterial activity, decrease in wound size, low swelling behavior, nontoxicity and tissue repairing etc.

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Empirical Study of Solar activity indicators, Halo CME and North Atlantic Oscillations for the 22nd & 23nd solar Cycles

U+1F5122019-04-21
M. Farghaly 1; S. Yousef 2,A. Tharwat 3

Influence of solar variability on the Earth’s climate requires studding solar interactions, and mechanisms that explain the response of the Earth’s climate system. The NAO (North Atlantic oscillation) is considered as one of the most dominant modes of global climate variability. Like El Niño, La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation, it is considered as free internal oscillation of the climate system not subjected to external forcing. It is shown, to be linked to energetic Solar eruptions. Surprisingly, it turns out that features of solar activity have been related to El Niño and La Niña, also have a significant impact on the NAO. A substantial portion is associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a hemispheric meridional oscillation as atmospheric mass with centers of action near Iceland and over the subtropical Atlantic. Sunspots area and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are from the most important solar events as far as space weather effects are concerned, linking solar eruptions, major interplanetary disturbances, and geomagnetic storms. A halo CME, which is usually associated with activity near the solar disk center, has great influence on space weather because an Earthward halo CME is indicative of coronal mass and magnetic fields moving out toward the Earth, therefore likely to cause geoeffective disturbances. In this work different statistical toolswere implemented to investigate the interrelationships among sun spots area and halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) with NAO index on the solar cycles 22,23, the results were discussed to show their dependency which consequently can be used to predict the behavior of NAO index in the next solar cyclesusing as an indicator to climatic variability.

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Improving the efficiency of QDSSCs Based on TiO2/CdS(Silar)/TBAI capped CdSe (Colloid) Photoanodes

U+1F5122019-04-21
M. Nabil 1, K. Easawi 1, S. Abdallah 1, M. K. Elmansy 2, S. Negm1, H. Talaat 3

CdS/CdSe co-sensitized photoelectrode for QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSSCs)has been prepared.CdSis synthesized using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (silar), whileCdSehas been synthesized by organometallic method. The TOPO and HDA capping of CdSe QDs has been modified to be Tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) in order to decrease the CdSe-TiO2 molecular separation. The results show that the short current density increased from 2.1 mA/cm2for (CdS-Silar) to 3.75 mA/cm2 for (CdS-Silar/CdSe–TBAI).This increase is due to the higher conduction band (CB) of the CdSe QDs than TiO2 and CdS (silar). An energy conversion efficiency of 0.92% is achievedby using TiO2/CdS/CdSephotoanode.

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STUDYING LASER IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ZnO VARISTORS

U+1F5122019-04-21
M. M. Saadeldin 1, Makram Ibrahim 2, M.Y. Helali 2

Three samples of ZnOvaristors doped with concentrations of copper oxide of 0.5 mol%, 1 mol%, and 3 mol%., with other impurities like carbon and iron.The traditional methods of preparing samples by mixing, drying, pressing and firing at 1100 ° C were used to obtain the samples in the form of dry solid discs. ZnO is a semiconductor ceramic material having a non-linear relationship between current and voltage, this property is used mainly to protect electric circuits from over-voltage risks on important parts of the electrical circuits such as various electronic components. The effects of the AC current frequency from 0 to 100 kHz and temperature from 20 to 170 ° C were studied on the dielectric constant, and electrical conductivity and comparisons of these parameters before and after laser irradiation are concluded. It was clear from the results that the carbon element which exists in all samples with different concentrations with the highest concentration in sample (2) has a big effect on the conductivity, the electrical conductivity of sample (2) highly increased than those of samples (1) and (3), while the iron component as an electrically conductive element is found by EDX only in sample (3) and in a very small concentration, and its effect on the electrical properties of this sample is thought to be negligible with respect to the effect of its high carbon content.

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Multi-Space Observations of Magnetic Field Variations Using Satellite Data

U+1F5122019-04-21
N. Mostafa 1, E. Ghamry 2, A. Fathy 3, A.Y. Ellithi 1, M, Gobashy 4

Sun is a source of heating, light and releases massive amounts of ionized particles (plasma) in all directions of interplanetary (IP) space; it causes an active source for geomagnetic activities, which in turn affects the navigation systems. A class of these activities happened sudden variation in the global magnetic field namely, geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC) and can be detected by magnetometers on the ground and in space. The current study concerns with the SC measurements obtained from a number of satellites distributed around the earth to have a global feature of the magnetic field at different local times and different altitudes.

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FROM THE ATOMIC FABRIC TO THE COSMIC FABRIC AND THE ORIGIN OF DARK MATTER

U+1F5122019-04-21
Abdelrahman Yasser Abdelrahman

of a mixture of fields, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force and electromagnetic force. Where the nucleus represents the center of curvature in this fabric which makes electrons move according to the gravity of the nucleus, and the movement of the electrons create waves in the fabric which in turn creates radiation, and there maybe exist a weak radiation results from these waves which makes it undetectable or maybe it lies outside of the electromagnetic radiation range or it creates particles that we didn't observe yet. There are two experiments supporting the above assumption: First, when placing an atomic clock (Cesium clock)on an airplane and placing a secondatomic clock on the ground, when the aircraft take off for a flight and return to ground, a delay I time was observed on the first clock relative to the second one which proved time delay according to special theory of relativity. Regarding the time that an atomic clock express, it represents the time of radioactive decay which changes depending on the mass of the nucleus such that it takes longer time for heavier nucleus, in other words, a delay in time. As the special relativity says, a moving particle acquires excess mass and that what happened for the nucleus in the atomic clock and made a delay in time due to excess in mass which creates stronger curvature in the atomic fabric and changed the waves in it which in turn affected the resulting radiation, here we find that the atomic fabric is affected by speed similar to the cosmic fabric which is affected by bodies' velocity, so its clear that there is a connection and relation between the two fabrics. Second: Quantum Entanglement, when reversing the rotation of a particle, there is another particle that reverses its rotation to preserve "Conservation of spin". Thinking of the two previously mentioned fabrics, the atomic fabric in which the first particlelies in transmits information through the cosmic fabricto the atomic fabricof the other particle. So, there is a connection between the two fabrics and it is also evident that other dimensions are approaching them from each other, shortening the distance traveled by the information of the first particleto the other particle. Here, after two demonstrations, the first was observed in the macroscopic world and the second in the microscopic world. The point where the two fabrics meet in spatial dimensions is "Singularity" point where the two fabrics have their maximum possible curve, but they are connected in the non-spatial dimensions, which is obvious from the two previous experiments. If the small particle lies in the atomic fabric and It is also the cornerstone of this universe, so, the atomic fabric is the basic component of the cosmic fabric, that is, the foundation stone of this fabric, and from here we can explain why gravity is the weakest force in the universe. According to the atomic fabric hypothesis, I think that when we measured gravity, we measured it in the atomic fabric, i.e.. in local fabric dominated by electromagnetism and nuclear forces and when measuring gravity in the cosmic fabric, gravity will appear to be the strongest. According to these hypotheses, we can also explain why there is a magnetic field in the universe from the ground up, Returning to the point of singularity that the big bang theory tells us about, there was the substance of the universe clustered at one point with a very high density, and according to my previous assumptions, this point contained inside it the atomic fabric, and at the time of the explosion, the particles came out and with its fabrics which united forming the cosmic fabric.But, where the magnetic field comes from and why its effect is noticeable in the universe? the answer to this question is through my study of evolution of the stars which states that: when stars consumethe nuclear fuel, this reduces the pressure resulting from the process of nuclear fusion in the nucleus of the star, which makes gravity overcomes the internal pressure and makes the star shrink on itself until it reaches a certain level that gravity cannotcompress the star more due to the internal pressure of electrons which resists compression. But, in massive stars, gravity compresses the electrons inside the nucleus forcing it to react according to this equation e + P ----> n + neutrino The result of this process is a neutron, which in turn will create a neutron pressure that prevents the star from compressing more and a neutron star is born with strong magnetic field. But in the case of very massive stars, I think that gravity will overcome the pressure of neutrons and press the neutrons making it interact with each other, which will produce a huge energy and another particle.This particle is the generator of the magnetic field in the universe, so it is like monopole, that acts like higgs boson - which makes matter having its mass- as it makes matter having its magnetic property,But when pressed more by the attraction with another particle like it, produces a particle that produces the magnetic field of the universe. So, a particle is responsible for the magnetic field in the universe that may be resulted from fusion of neutrons or other particles undetected yet. This particle can be existed inside the black hole near to the singularity point where neutrons can be compressed or any other undetected particles to be compressed. Comparing this state with the early state of the universe, the assemblage of the matter of the universe in the first singularity point of the universe requires the existence of this particle there which originated the magnetic field at the moment of big bang. Finally we conclude that; we can find an answer to the abundance of matter to antimatter, by reconsidering the positron (anti-electron) detection experiment, after exposing a screen to gamma rays in existence of a magnetic field, it was noticed that both electron and positron were emitted each having an opposite direction of motion (having mirror image) and symmetry. Thus, by connecting all of the aforementioned facts and conclusions, the mere occurrence of the Big Bang implies the gain of a huge amount of energy to the pressurized matter inside the singularity; perhaps even much more than the Gamma Radiation’s, or a new type of radiation that is not yet discovered. Moreover, the particle, that produces an electromagnetic radiation, had already done that then, and we have seen it in the laboratory. However, on the large scale of the universe, matter went out in one direction with the antimatter going out in the other symmetrical one. That suggests that there might be other sides of the universe since the departure of particles, be it matter or antimatter, in a disordered way where entropy was increasing, and the particles tended more to disorder than order. Yet, the other sides of the universe, including the one we are already in, rotate around a singularity point or at rest! And what makes it hold up to that point up till now? If we are to answer this by assuming that this point is the attraction point for this universe, then in what fabric does it make its curvature? Again, if we are to answer this by the fabric of the universe, however, the fabric of the universe in itself was produced from the atomic fabric that was contained inside it. This means, through personal conclusion as before, that there exists something that encompasses that point, perhaps a third fabric that we do not know a thing about yet. However, it will open up a whole new and deeper perspective of the gravity than the one the General Relativity had brought up which did not explain why does the universal fabric curve (or deform) under the existence of mass. Also, at the detection of the last gravitational waves, it was found that it was received just at the same time the corresponding electromagnetic wave was received. That implies that they both propagate at the same speed, and that makes us wonder whether they both are special cases of a broader form of radiation of which they are both just a part of. The dark matter is the more fundamental matter and it consists of very small particles which fuses together to form the ordinary matter. I concluded this from studying quasars and it's evolution.

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Some Physical Properties of SBR/NBR Rubber Blends

U+1F5122019-04-21
A.Y. Zanaty, M. Hafez, A. S. Doma, S.A. Khairy, H.H. Hassan

Different blends of SBR/NBR compatibilized by butadiene rubber(BR) were prepared according to the well known standard methods. The modified blend of unfilled SBR/NBR was characterized on the basis of the effect of blend ratio on curing parameters. Themechanical properties, abrasion resistance, compression set and swelling properties of blends were investigated.It was found thatSBR/NBR blends showed comparatively better mechanical properties compared to each other individually rubber system. Curing parameters e.g. low torque (ML) was increased. while a reduction in cure time was observed with increasing SBR ratio in blends. Results revealed that increasing SBR results in an enhancement of tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (Eb).The effect of blend ratioon the swelling and compression set behavior of SBR/NBR compounds was also investigated. From the current investigation it was found that, the increase SBR loading inherent with dramaticallydecline in swelling percentage while the compression set increases with increasing NBR content.Overall, an observed enhancement in curing parameters and mechanical properties has been achieved by studying the effect of blend ratio on the unfilled SBR/NBRblends.

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EFFECT OF COLD PLASMA ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DPPC LIPOSOMES

U+1F5122019-04-21
Heba M Fahmy*, Asmaa A Hassan, Ghada F Abdelfatah, Salma Y Mohamed, Mohamed H Gaber

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has many promising applications in biomedical engineering, dentistry and oncology. This study investigates the effect of CAP on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-glycerol-3- phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes prepared by the thin film hydration method which are used as a model for lipid bilayer membrane. DPPC liposomes were exposed to cold plasma 2, 3 and 5 minutes. The effects of cold plasma on DPPC characterization parameters such as size, charge, FTIR absorption spectrum, UVvisible spectrum and phase transition temperatures were investigated. Exposure of DPPC liposomes to CAP led to an increment in the size and stability of liposomes by increasing the exposure time. 2-min CAP exposure was found to increase liposomal size through particle aggregation, whereas, 3 and 5 min exposure increases the liposome size via adsorption of negative species emerging from CAP on their surfaces. As depicted from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, the electrostatic interaction between the CAP species and phospholipids acyl groups of DPPC resulted in the change of DPPC conformation. The hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules arranged more closer, especially with increasing the exposure time. Thus, it can be concluded that CAP alters the physical and chemical characteristics of DPPC liposomes.

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Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Formic Acid at Iron and Nickel Oxides Nanoparticles-Modified Platinum Surfaces

U+1F5122019-04-21
Bilquis Ali Al-Qodami 1, Sayed Y. Sayed 1, Nageh K. Allam 2, Ahmad M. Mohammad 1

Electrocatalytic oxidation of small organic molecules has recently gained more attention because of its application in power conversion technologies.The formic acid electro-oxidation (FAO); the principal anodic reaction in the direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs), is usually catalyzedon either Pt or Pd-based surfaces.Generally,Pd-based catalysts exhibit much higher catalytic activity toward FAO and less intermediates' poisoning than Pt-based catalysts butare, unfortunately, subjected to acute deactivation;making them unsuitable for commercial purposes. On the other hand, Pt-based catalysts which have been proven more durable than Pd catalysts (albeitof less catalytic activity)for FAO represent the ideal choice so far for FAO. At Pt-based catalysts, FAO proceeds in a dual-pathway mechanism;the direct(dehydrogenationdesirableless overpotential) and indirect (dehydration undesirable  higher overpotential) oxidation avenues [1]. The indirect pathway of FAO involves the catalytic poisoning of the Pt surface with CO intermediate that is produced "non-faradaically" at open circuit potential. This poisoning is the main dilemma deteriorating the performance of DFAFCs as it severely lowers the energy and power densities of the cells.Herein, we propose a new catalyst composed of iron and nickel oxides nanoparticles andprepared by the layer-by-layer electrodeposition technique on Pt surfaces.Thedepositionsequence of the catalyst’singredientsis optimized to attain the highest catalytic activity and stability toward FAO. The transition metal oxide nanostructures assisted in mediating the reaction mechanism via speeding the charge transfer and in imparting a geometrical immunity to the Pt surface mitigating the CO poisoning which ultimately improved the catalyst's durability. Various electrochemical and materials characterizationtechniques including the cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry,field- emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were all combined to assess the catalytic activity and stability of the catalyst and further to report the catalysts' morphology, composition and structure.

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Simulation of Fusion Evaporation of Mn52 By Ultra Intense Laser Fusion of Al27 Targets

U+1F5122019-04-21
Lotfia El Nadi 1,2*, M. Ramadan 3, M. El Nagdy 4

Ultra Intense Laser UIL interaction with Al27 target could possibly give rise to a nuclear reaction of the target nuclei with the accelerated target charged ion in the laser field. The residual radioactive nuclei of Mn 52 and Mn 51 could well be due to evaporation of deuterons and tritons from the created compound nucleus according to the nuclear reaction: Al27 (Al27, H2) Mn52 and AL27 (Al27 + H3) Mn51 We here will report simulation of compound nucleus formation followed by particle evaporation applying Mont Calro code PACE-4 to estimate the possible crosssection for forming highly excited compound nucleus Fe54 leading to the final Nuclei Mn52 and Mn51. The results shown in the figure below indicate that the highest cross section of such possible two reactions is peaking at Al27 ions projectile energy ≈ 60 MeV (2.222 MeV/ A ) and 70 MeV ( 2.593 MeV/A ) respectively. The cross sections for production of the neutron deficient Mn nuclei resulting from the two above mentioned nuclear reactions of Al27 + Al27 are also estimated. The estimated cross-section of Mn52 and Mn51 positron emitters shown in figure indicate maximum values of approximately 30 and 150 mb at the aluminum ion energies mentioned above respectively. The nuclear reactions leading to Mn positron emitters are expected to also provide deuterons and tritons with the same cross-sections. The energies of these particles (H2 and H3) are calculated considering the newest standard Tables of the Nuclear Masses. Possible acceleration of these emitted particles in the laser field is also expected. The Possibility of a new approach of fusion of the deuterons and tritons without implosion during the confined short laser pulse duration is proposed. In this approach an intense laser field equal or above 100 Peta Watt would be needed. Simulation calculations for the form factors will be reported. The design of the experimental set up to be applied to attain such Fusion energy and overcome probable difficulties will be elaborated.

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PROSPECTS of NUCLEAR PHYSICS WITH LASERS – DREAM OR REALITY?

U+1F5122016-12-17
T. Kuehl, P. Neumayer, B. Borm, D. Schneider, A. Yakushev, J. Khuyagbaatar, V. Bagnoud, Ch. Brabetz, F. Wagner, Th. Stoehlker

The application of lasers to drive nuclear reactions started as soon as the discovery of lasers was published. Soon afterwards laser fusion programs for power production where initiated. Already in the early1990’s reports on laser accelerated electron beams started the idea of laser driven nuclear reactions using laser accelerated particles. With the later advent of proton and light-ion acceleration reaching 10’s of MeV this idea became more and more realistic. For many practical application laser accelerated beams might soon reach a level of commercial applicability. The quest of a competitional role in the realm of advanced Nuclear Physics has started at least with the ELI projects, in particular ELI NP in Bukarest. In the talk experimental results in the direction of new laser acceleration schemes and the application of standard nuclear physics instrumentation for laser experiments will be discussed.

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NEW ENERGY RESOURCES START FROM THE LATEST ACHIEVEMENTS of INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH

U+1F5122016-12-17
LOTFIA M. EL NADI

We plan to initiate unprecedented large experiment provided by high technological equipments that are widely used in international laboratories. The study of the interaction of high density laser fields with matter is an important rapidly expanding branch of physics since the last five years. The potential applications of this research are numerous, not only in physics, but also in new energy resources, chemistry, biology, material science, in the fast ignition approach to fusion, in accelerators, for relativistic electrons and for Nuclear effects and charged ion acceleration. Since their starting steps in 2000, high density short pulse (HDSP) lasers have been developed to generate very short pulses with typical high performance parameters. The study of the interaction of high density laser fields with matter is an important rapidly expanding branch of physics. The potential applications of this research are numerous and we shall present an approach to evaluate the economics of the Thermal Energy Production applying the High Density LASER INDUCED THERMAL ENERGY HD- LITE.

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METALLOPORPHYRINS: STRUCTURE, BONDING and SELF-ASSEMBLING

U+1F5122016-12-17
A.M.Ionov, S.I.Bozhko, V.S.Bozhko, R.N.Mozhchil

Organic molecular films of porphyrins have attracted attention over the past years in view of potential applications as the templates for nanomaterials synthesis, nanoelectronic devices and for biology and medicine. For understanding and tailoring their properties the knowledge of electronic structure and bonding in porphyrins is required. The goal of these studies was to investigate the surface topography and the electronic structure of a valence band(VB) and core levels of tetraaril-porphyrins, RE(Yb, Er,) metals and Pt-group compounds (Pt-TPP(n-COOH3)4;etc). The electronic structure of VB, C1s, O1s, N1s, metal core levels and the topography of porphyrins were studied by PES and AFM. The HRPES studies were performed at the RGBL BESSY II using photon energies 120-600 eV. All elements of the compounds were found in XPS spectra. In TPP spectra two peaks of N1s at 399.8 and 397.8 eV (BE range) were assigned to sp3 and sp2 nitrogen, respectively. In metalloporphyrins the charge distribution is more uniform for N1s spectra of metalloporphyrins. Different peaks in spectra were related to the unequivalent C atoms in the molecules (aromatic and C-N-C groups). The valence band is formed by the states corresponding to π (2- 12 eV BE) and σ-states (8-16 eV) of macrocycles. AFM studies of thin films structure show that the structure of solid-phase films is determined by their chemical nature, supramolecular structure and interaction with substrates. These films self-assemble in the air under ambient conditions into partially ordered large rod-shaped and flat supramolecular nanostructures on flat substrates, with an average size in nanoscale, where the molecules are approximately parallel and cofacial to one another. The results of PES and AFM studies of topography and self-assembling processes in thin films of porphyrins are presented and discussed.

Acknowledgement This work was supported by Russian Academy of Sciences and the bilateral program “Russian-German Laboratory at BESSY”.

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TOPOLOGICAL SEMIMETAL SB (111) WITH EXOTIC BEHAVIOR: STM, LEED and APRES STUDIES

U+1F5122016-12-17
S.I. Bozhko, S.V. Chekmazov A.M. Ionov, .A.A.Kapustin A.A. Smirnov, O.Yu.Vilkov*

Due to a strong spin-orbit interaction, the surface states of Sb (111) are similar to those for topological insulators. The surface states are protected by timereversal symmetry, and energy dispersion is a linear function of momentum. Surface modification (for example, defects in surface structure) leads to a local break of the surface translational symmetry and can change surface states. It is the primary reason to study the defects of Sb crystal structure and their effect on the surface states dispersion. Etching of the Sb(111) surface using Ar+ ions is a common way to create defects both in a bulk and on the surface of the crystal. For qualitative interpretation of the PE features we have provided the comparative experiments on at (111) surface and after ion etching. Sb(111) ion etching at room temperature reveals anomalous exotic behavior of a surface crystal structure. It results in the formation of flat terraces with a size of 2nm. Investigation of electronic structure of the etched Sb (111) surface has demonstrated an increase of density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level. The results are discussed in terms of local break of the Peierls transition conditions. The authors thank Russian-German laboratory at BESSY II and the Resource Center of Saint Petersburg State University “Physical Methods of Surface Investigation’’.

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ELASTIC SCATTERING MEASUREMENTS at LHC and THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Fazal-e-Aleem

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is offering a whole new ground for subatomic studies in the Tevatronenery regime. Elastic scattering is explored by the TOTEM Experiment which will offer us a clearer picture of diffractive scattering. Together with earlier measurements at GeV energies, theory faces a challenge. In our recent work, it was observed that by using Generalized Chou Yang model we can give a consistent picture of hadronic radii. In this talk, we will give an overview of current and future TOTEM measurements together with theoretical explanation.

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STELLAR LABORATORIES

U+1F5122016-12-17
K. Werner

Atomic data for highly ionized species beyond the iron group are scarce. We have discovered hot white dwarf stars exhibiting spectral lines of this species, originating from atmospheric plasmas with temperatures of the order 100,000 Kelvin. Ultraviolet spectroscopy is executed with the Hubble Space Telescope. We perform quantummechanical calculations to obtain line-transition probabilities and level-excitation energies. The data are validated by feeding them into stellar atmosphere models to compute stellar spectra which are then compared to the observations. In this way, we were using stars to obtain, for the first time ever, atomic data of many heavy elements like Zn, Ga, Ge, Kr, Zr, Mo, Xe, and Ba in ionization stages IV-VII.

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NUCLEAR ELECTRON TUNNELING in SUPERCOMPRESSED SUPERSONIC JET

U+1F5122016-12-17
Kholmurad Khasanov

The development of a special design of nozzles which we call dynamic emitter [1]allowed us to obtain asupersonic jet with spiral instability, super vibration and supercompression[2,3].When we pass this supersonic jet through an environment with thermoelectronic emission, we can observe the release of bulk energy and transformation of atoms [4,5,6] which is accompanied by gamma rays, x-rays, heat and light emission of high density of energy.These phenomena’s allows us to claim that the Nuclear Electron Tunnelling based on the quantum-mechanical effects are taking place in the nucleated continuum. Below are pictures of practical application of the phenomena:

References [1]Kh. Khasanov and S. V. Petukhov, “Dynamic Emitter,” PF Patent No. 2058196, 1996 [2]Kh. Khasanov, “Visualization of Super-Compressibility in Supersonic Spiral-Twisted Jets”, Physics Letters A, Vol. 376, No. 5, 2012, pp. 748-753. [3]Kh. Khasanov, “Double Spiraled Supersonic Jet,” Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2011, pp. 433-436. [4] Kh. Khasanov, “Spatial Super-Compressibility of the Continuous Media in High-Frequency Fields”, American Journal of Modern Physics, 2015; 4(6): 281-286. [5] Kh. Khasanov, “Super-Comprehensibility Phenomenon”,Journal of Modern Physics, 2013, 4. [6] Radiation of Directed Gravitation High-Energy Photo 5th International Conference on Modern Trends in Physics Research, Cairo University, 2014

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APPLYING PHYSICS to LIFE - DEVELOPMENT of HEALTHCARE TECHNOLOGY for THE COMMON PEOPLE - in THE LIGHT of BANGLADESH EXPERIENCE

U+1F5122016-12-17
Dr.K Siddique-e Rabbani

Technology and science are at the root of human civilization. In the medical scenario, right from the simple mercury thermometer to gigantic PET scanners, healthcare technology has proliferated to a stage beyond imagination of the common person; Physics being the major knowledge base behind all these developments. However, selfish desires to grab all the benefits led to unprecedented technology deprivation and unacceptable human sufferings to about 80% of the global population who eventually turned out to be the residents of the so called ‘Third World’ or the ‘Low Resource Countries (LRC)’.The educated and trained scientists and technologists in these LRCs contributed further to this divide by indulging in publication driven research or ‘glamourous’ research keeping themselvesin isolated ‘bubbles’ and being oblivious to the sufferings of their own populations who had supported all the expenditures in educating them and in bearing the costs of research, however meagre that may be. The author felt that the only solution to the above mentioned scenariolies in the development of technology needed to enhance the quality of life of the common people within each of the national boundaries, particularly within the LRCs and this realisation brought himstraight back home in 1978, after obtaining a PhD in microelectronics which was rather irrelevant to his country but offered high job prospects in the North. At home he looked for avenues in science that could be useful to the people.A research in a medical problem initiated by a senior gave him a direction and a subsequent academic link with UK scientists boosted the horizon and expertise. Over the last 38 years the author’s team developed severalmodern healthcare devices including computer based ones which are being used in hospitals, clinics or by patients, even beyond the borders of Bangladesh. Some wereroutinely used for more than twenty years, unimaginable for any imported equipment! These devices include, i)Computerised EMG/Nerve conduction equipment, ii) Computerised ECG equipment (also used in telemedicine for online transmission of data), iii)Computerised dynamic Pedograph (for foot pressure distribution mapping), iv)Iontophoresis equipment for treatment of excessive sweating (used by patients at home), v)Muscle & Nerve stimulator (for physiotherapy), vi) Low cost semi-functional mechanical prosthetic hand, vii) Intraoperative Neuro Monitor (for monitoring nerves during brain or spinal surgery) and viii) Electrical Bio-Impedance devicefor localised physiological monitoring.Such efforts also gave the expertise and experience to fill in gaps that were revealed when the devices were used for clinical work or for research, which led to innovations in the areas of nerve conduction in the form of a new parameter, ‘Distribution of FLatency (DFL)’ and in general physiological study and diagnosis through another new technique, ‘Focused Impedance Method (FIM)’. Both of these have been taken up for research by advanced universities of the world including Norway and UK.The author’s team deliberately refrained from taking out patents, rather they have established an ‘International Centre for Technology Equalisation (ICTEq)’ for dissemination of the matured technologies. They have also innovated very simple techniques for providing germ-free drinking water using solar Pasteurisation that a rural user can make from easily available materials. The author’s group also got involved in the manufacture and dissemination of the developed technology and in establishing a telemedicine network within the countrydeveloping their own hardware and software. The success of all the above effort has started to become visible and has beenacclaimed nationally and internationally. Financial support has also started pouring in from national and international sources. All these efforts and models for dissemination have immense potentials to solve some of the major problems in the healthcare sector, particularly in the LRCs and the author expects serious discussions on these issues in a forum such as the MTPR-2016.

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SURFACE NANOENGINEERING: WRITING WITH OXYGEN ADATOMS on THE oO2/MO(110)SURFACE

U+1F5122016-12-17
S.Bozhko1,2, K.Walshe1, B.Walls1, O.Lübben1, B.Murphy1, V.Bozhko3, I.Shvets1

Writing at the nanoscale using the desorption of oxygen adatoms from the oxygen-rich MoO2+x/Mo(110) surface is demonstrated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). High-temperature oxidation of the Mo(110) surface results in a strained, bulk-like MoO2(010) ultra-thin film with an O–Mo–O trilayer structure.Due to the lattice mismatch between the Mo(110) and the MoO2(010), the latter consists of well-ordered molybdenum oxide nanorows separated by 2.5 nm. Further oxidation results in the oxygen-rich MoO2+x/Mo(110)surface, which exhibits perfectly aligned double rows of oxygen adatoms,imaged by STM as bright protrusions. Individual oxygen adatoms can be removed from the surface by pulsing at positive sample biases greater than 1.5V (Fig. a,b.c). Adatoms were removed from the surface both when STM tip was in tunneling contact and when it was far from the surface (tunneling current was absent). Tipmovement along the surface can be used for controlled lithography (or writing) at the nanoscale, with a just atomic sizeofa feature (Fig. d). By moving the STMtip in a predetermined fashion, information can be written and read by applying specific biases between the surface and the tip.

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PLASMA OPACITY of THE SUN and EXOPLANETARY HOST STARS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Sultana N. Nahar

Thousands of extra-solar planets have been discovered thus far, mainly by the space based observatory KEPLER. Host stars of exoplanets generally fall under a category of "cool dwarfs" like our Sun, specially G, K, F, and M-class stars. Most stars belong to this category, with stellar fluxes that are not too intense for planetary atmospheres to exist. Of particular interest are Earth-like planets and solar-type stars, forming a star-planet system in the so-called "habitable or Goldilocks" zone where liquid water may also be found. The primary technique for detecting exoplanets is planetary transit across the host star, and measurement of resultant variation in stellar flux. However, the variations are extremely slight, and interpretation of observation requires precise knowledge of stellar atmospheres and detailed knowledge of emitted spectrum. In particular, the predicted near-UV flux is important since Earth-like life forms are highly sensitive to it. However, current model spectra of cool stars do not accurately reproduce observed fluxes even for the Sun. The problem lies in the attenuation of transmitted flux due to the opacity of plasma comprising stellar atmospheres. The computations for opacity are highly complex, requiring non-localthermodynamic- equilibrium (NLTE) models using a vast amount of atomic data for a plethora of UV lines and continuous opacity, especially for relatively low ionization stages of abundant elements such as carbon, sililcon and iron, and ions such as nuetral and singly ionized Fe I-II. Radiative atomic processes responsible for photon absorption and opacity can now be computed with high accuracy using state-of-the-art atomic physics and computer codes. The most powerful theoretical methodology is the R-Matrix method that is capable of producing highly detailed photoionization or bound-free cross sections and millions of transition probabilities among hundreds to thousands of atomic levels.

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STM INVESTIGATION OF INTERFACIAL BAND BENDING IN AU-TIPPED CD-CHALCOGENIDES HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES

U+1F5122016-12-17
Hassan Talaat

The interfacial electronic structure of Au-tipped CdX (X = S, Se and Te) hybrid nanostructures (HNSs) have been studied by UHV scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) at room temperature. Au-tipped CdX (X = S, Se and Te) HNSs were synthesized by phase transfer chemical methods. The dimensions were determined by the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and the optical absorption. The measured dimensions using these techniques are consistent, giving Au tip average size within the range of [2.5, 3.5] nm and Cd-chalcogenides quantum dots (QDs) nanoparticles (NPs) average size within the range of [3.5, 4] nm. The STS at the interface of Au-tipped CdS and CdSe HNSs detects a downward band bending towards the interface ~0.25 ± 0.01 eV and 0.18 ± 0.03 eV respectively, indicating an electron accumulation at these interfaces. However, an upward band bending towards the interface of ~0.78 ± 0.01 eV is measured by the STS at the interface of Au-tipped CdTe HNS, indicating electron depletion at the interface. The band bending values were also confirmed using the corresponding calculated models of the energy band diagrams. These different behaviors were also observed in the UVevis absorption of Autipped CdS and CdSe HNSs, which shows exciton bleaching features, but an exciton increasing feature is observed in the case of Au-tipped CdTe HNS. These later results are explained as a result of the presence of electron accumulation at the interface of Au-tipped CdS and CdSe HNSs, and also an electron depletion at the interface of Autipped CdTe HNS. Such determinations of the interfacial band bending in Au-tipped Cd-chalcogenides HNSs have significant consequences on the charge separation efficiency and the photo-response behavior. Furthermore, the presence of these bands has a direct impact in the field of applying plasmonics for improved photovoltaic solarcells.

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THE APPLICATION OF ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY (AFM) IN NANO-BIOPHYSICS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Hosam Gharib Abdelhady

We applied the 4D AFM to:

First: Film the landing of individual, flexible nanomolecules onto atomically flat surfaces from a very diluted aqueous drop. How these nanomolecules start making a monolayer? How they behave when they just meet a single, free moving biomolecules (DNA in this study)? Finally, how we applied these results in producing individual, targeted nanoparticles for cancer treatment?

Second: Image in nanoscopic scale the DNA damage bysmall and large Au NPsin near physiological conditions.

Finally: Capturethe mechanism(s) of enzymaticaction on a very short RNA rods. We believe that these points will increase the application of 4D-AFM in biophysics and Nanomedicine.

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OPTICAL and ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES of AG/PVA NANOCOMPOSITES for AN ORGANIC ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Kamal M. Abd El-Kader, Wahib M. Attia, Ahmed .G. El-Shamy

In the present work, Poly (vinyl alcohol)-silver (PVA-Ag) nanocomposite films with thickness 0.18 mm, constant silver content (0.4 wt. %) and different time of reactions (0.1, 3, 5, 7, 9 h) were prepared by the chemical reduction (in-situ) method. Structural and optical properties of PVA-Ag nanocomposite were studied by Uv-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Optical absorption studies showed an additional peak at 427 nm for different films and a peak at 210 nm for undoped PVA film. It was found that the root mean square (RMS) roughness, the average diameter of Ag nanoparticles and optical energy gap decrease, while PL intensity, the conductivity, and the absorbed intensity at 427 nm increase as the time of reaction is increased. XRD results showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with (FCC) phase in the PVA matrix. The dielectric constant (ε') value decreased with the increasing the time of reaction. The conductivity and dielectric loss were increased with an increasing the time of reaction. Poole - Frankel emission is the prevailing transport mechanism for all samples.

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AN INNOVATIVE HYBRID REGULARIZED KACZMARZ-BAT APPROACH for UXO DETECTION FROM ITS GRADIENT MAGNETIC ANOMALY

U+1F5122016-12-17
M. Abdelazeem 1, E. Emary 2 and M. Gobashy 3

Different countries suffer from the problem of detecting and locating the unexploded ordnance (UXO) after military events. Such a problem has a great impact on economic development and future plans. Egypt is one of those countries, where more than 23 million UXOs are expected to cover a wide part of its northwestern desert. Detection of UXO becomes a persistent target for many geophysical research teams. Currently, unconventional near-surface flight technologies, such as quad/hexa-copters instead of regular land surveys, are used for safety reasons in the acquisition phase. In the interpretation phase, the analytical methods played challenging role to solve such ill-posed problems using the regularization tools especially those based on Tikhonov formula. Those methods still have limitations when dealing with highly ill-posed problems. Fortunately, neither noise nor ill-posedness affects the quality of the solution produced by artificial intelligence based techniques. Hence, the application of the hybrid regularize/artificial intelligence based technique would present a promising choice. In this work, we implement the Kaczmarz-Bat technique, which holds the power of the regularizing analytical technique as an initial good solution and the benefits of artificial intelligent technique, represented in bat method to enhance the solution. The gradient magnetic field over UXO objects was sliced into profiles and solved using the proposed approach as 2D earth models. The solutions are stacked together in a 3D perspective model illustrating the depth and location of the targets.

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NEWLY EMERGING PHOTONIC TECHNOLOGIES: FUNDAMENTALS and APPLICATIONS

U+1F5122016-12-17
SALAH OBAYYA

The turn towards optical computers and photonic integrated circuits in high capacity optical networks has attracted the interests of expert researchers nowadays. This is because all optical packet switching and routing technologies hold promise to provide more efficient power and footprint scaling with increased router capacity. Therefore, it is aimed to integrate more optical processing elements into the same chip, and thus, increase on-chip processing capability and system intelligence. The merging of components and functionalities drives down packaging cost, bringing photonic devices one step (or more) closer to deployment in routing systems. Photonic crystal devices can be functionally used as a part of comprehensive all photonic crystal based system, where on the same photonic crystal platform, many functionalities can be realized. Therefore, photonic crystals have recently received much attention due to their unique properties in controlling the propagation of light. Many potential applications of photonic crystals require some capability for tuning through external stimuli. It is anticipated that the photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals (LCs) have high tunability with external electric field and temperature. For the vast majority of LCs, the application of an electric field results in an orientation of the nematic director either parallel or perpendicular to the field, depending on the sign of the dielectric anisotropy of the nematic medium. `Plasmonics' is a relatively new term in Optics which refers to applications or phenomena in which surface plasmons (SP) are involved. Recently, the scientists and engineers of several disciplines have turned their attention to the plasmonic effects and their applications.This is because advances in technology have allowed fabrication and patterning of metallic structures in nanometer scale. Further, the SP waveguides can confine the light in nanoscale dimensions beyond the diffraction limit. Therefore, more compact optical systems can be developed based on the plasmonic waveguides. In almost all cases, an accurate quantitative theoretical modelling of these devices has to be based on advanced computational techniques that solve the corresponding, numerically very large linear, nonlinear or coupled partial differential equations. In this talk, the different computational modelling techniques will be introduced. In addition, novel designs of high birefringence LC PCF infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal (NLC-PCF) are presented and analyzed. Moreover, due to their different uses in communication systems, the performance of novel designs of high tunable polarization rotator, directional coupler, polarization splitter, plasmonic multiplexer-demultiplexer, plasmonic temperature sensors based on the NLC-PCF will be introduced. The simulation results are obtained using full vectorial finite difference method, full vectorial finite difference beam propagation method, and finite element method (FEM) with nonuniform meshing capabilities and perfect matched layer boundary conditions.

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TOWARDS DIAGNOSTICS and MONITORING of DISEASE BIOMARKERS in EXHALED BREATH USING FREQUENCY COMB LASER

U+1F5122016-12-17
T. Mohamed1,2, F. Zhu1 , J. Strohaber1 , A. A. Kolomenskii1 , and Hans A Schuessler1

Breath analysis is a non-invasive method for monitoring the volatile organic compounds present in the human breath and is one of the clinical tests that can be used for early disease detection. The advantages of breath analysis in comparison to blood or urine analysis includes it is non-invasive, easily repeated, and does not cause any infections. In this connection an optical setup based on a frequency comb laser and a multipass optical cell has been developed for breath analysis. The multipass optical cell is formed by six highly reflective confocal mirrors to achieve long optical path of 600 m in a cell of only of 0.5 m in length. The frequency comb lasers are a broadband fiber laser beams with spectral range spanning from 1500 nm to 1700 nm and from 3100 to 3400 nm. The relevant spectrum covers many biomarkers, including ethane, acetone, methane, ethylene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and methylamine. For testing the optical setup, the absorption laser spectroscopy measurements in the near/mid IR of acetone, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide gasses were carried out. For methane and acetone a signal to noise ratio of 120 was obtained and the detection limits were ~ 1.5 ppmv and ~ 2 ppmv respectively. Also a brief description of a new laser facility at Beni-Suef University, Egypt will be discussed during the conference.

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NERATION ULTRAFAST WHITE-LIGHT LASER PULSES

U+1F5122016-12-17
Walid Tawfik

Ultrafast laser pulses have beenvital for a varietyof developed applications like: X- ray free electron laser generation X-FEL, femtosecond laser pulses induced high harmonic generation and as an essential means for creation of ultraviolet coherent attosecond laser pulses [1]. Recently, high power table-top laserschemebasically depends on Ti:Sapphire as an amplifiermedium, and some terawatt-class laser systems have been established [2]. Nevertheless, these sophisticated systems have serious problems like pulse deformation due to thermal load on the amplifiers and thermal lensing particularly inside the laser rod [3]. In this work, generation and characterization of broadband-ultrafast high energy laser pulses have been considered using a relatively simple methodology. The characterization of ultrafast pulses in the regime of few-cycle pulses has been considered using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) [4]. These pulses were produced due to supercontinuum triggered by self – phase modification (SPM) in neon gas filled hollow-fiber followed by a set of chirpedmirrors for dispersion compensation. The generated output pulses after compression achieved ~ 5femtosecond pulse duration with high energy of sub-mJ at 1 KHz repetition rate. The output spectral bandwidth found to cover broadrange from 550 – 950 nm.It has been found that the out put pulse width is affected by thepulse duration of the injected femtosecond pulses into the optical fiber under different gas pressures. The obtained pulses may give a chance to create high harmonic generations HHGwhich could be used for generation of extremely short pulses down to x-ray regime with short pulse durations down to attosecond regime in future.

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FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY of GENERATING THE FIRST SOLAR LASER (50 Years Solar Laser)

U+1F5122016-12-17
Yasser A. Abdel-Hadi

Solar laser is one of the novel branches in recent technology. This branch has been developed from the combination of two sciences; solar energy and laser physics. The workers and researchers in the field of laser are celebrating the golden jubilee of the invention of solar laser (or solar generated (or pumped)) laser. It was a great success to use the solar energy to generate the laser beam which usually needs high energy to get generated. The idea of directly converting broad-band solar radiation into coherent and narrow-band laser radiation represented a new success of the geometrical-optics-based solar energy. This way of thinking was a very good solution to obtain the laser beam from the solar energy. A trip of 50 years of solar laser and its applications is summarized in this presentation.

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CHARACTERIZATION of LA0.7SR0.3MNO3 THIN FILMS by PULSED LASER DEPOSITION for SOFC APPLICATION

U+1F5122016-12-17
A.A. El-Aziem*a, Y. Badra, K.M. El-Khatibb, M. A. Hafez a

La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) polycrystalline was synthesized using sol gel method at 600 ᵒC. The structure and elemental analysis were confirmed by XRD and EDX respectively with rhombohedral crystal structure. HR-TEM imaging showed that the prepared LSM has uniform shape with agglomeration and average size from 100- 200 nm by PSD. Thin films of LSM with 97 nm were deposited on clean Si (100) single crystal substrate by PLD using Nd: YAG (1064 nm) with 10 Hz repetition rate and 6 ns pulse duration at room temperature in high vacuum of ~ 6´10-6 Torr. LSM films were annealed at temperatures of 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ᵒC for 2h. The XRD indicated that crystallization is enhanced by increasing annealing temperature. Additionally, grain size was increased by rising annealing temperature as indicated from FESEM imaging. The average roughness (Ra) and root mean square roughness (Rq) were decreased by increasing annealing temperature up to 600 ᵒC then increased by further temperature increasing as showed by AFM images. Raman spectra were recorded in wave numbers 100-100 ٠cm-1 and all major peaks appeared at annealing temperature 1000 ᵒC. The electrical and dielectric properties for the as deposited film and films annealed at different temperatures also recorded in temperature ranges from room temperature to 200 °C and found to be sensitive to temperature and open possibility for using LSM as cathode part in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).

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STORAGE of FEMTOSECOND LASER PULSES in AN OPTICAL TRAP

U+1F5122016-12-17
Abdullah Shehata1, Mohamed Yassien1, Mona Ali1, Tarek Mohamed1, Reinhold Schuch2

An optical trap for storing femtosecond laser pulses was investigated theoretically to enhance the interaction efficiency with optically thin targets. The optical trap consists of an electro-optical switch, high reflective mirrors and a focusing system. The efficiency of the optical trap is strongly depends on the optical losses from the optical elements of the trap [1]. To compensate the optical losses, Ti: Sapphire crystal as an amplifying medium was implemented in the optical trap. It has high saturation fluence ≈ 0.9 Jcm-2, and upper state lifetime of 3.2 μs. These parameters do not cause a quick extraction of the stored energy from the amplifying medium and keep the intensity of stored laser pulse constant over 3.2 μs [2]. In the theoretical investigations, we had studied the trapping of femtosecond laser pulses of wavelength 800 nm, 1mJ energy per pulse, 10 Hz repetition rate and with different pulse duration times. Due to the propagation of these laser pulses through the optical trap both of phase self modulation and group velocity dispersion, introduce large broadening for the laser pulses that have the initial duration time <500 fs. To compensate this broadening, chirped mirror with suitable properties can be used. Power consideration showed an increase in the average power of the laser system when the optical trap that includes a Ti: Sapphire by a factor of 165 times compared to single passage of the laser pulse. Also the laser pulse could be stored in the optical trap for 4 μs. Comparison between the available experimental data and our theoretical data showed a good agreement.

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GROWTH OF SILVER OXIDE (AgO) THIN FILMS BY PULSED LASER DEPOSITION

U+1F5122016-12-17
Hisham Imam1, Ahmed Elbanna2, Mohamed A. Hafez1, Inas ElZawawi2, Yosr Gamal1

In this work, a series of Silver Oxide (AgO)thin films on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are studied at different deposition conditions and constant oxygen pressure 0.3 mbar. The thin films were prepared by Nd:YAG laser (1064 & 532 nm) with 10 Hz repetition rate and 6 ns pulse duration.The effects of ablation time (Tab) on the structural and optical properties ofAgO thin films by grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXRD).XRD and TEM result confirmed that the structure of the films prepared by the fundamental wavelength of Nd:YAGlaser at constant oxygen pressure 0.3 mbar were nanocrystalline monoclinic AgO. The optical band gap of the thin films which prepared using the fundamental and second harmonic of Nd:YAG laserdecreases with increasing the Tab. The partical size (Ps) of nanocrystallineAgO thin film increases by increasing the ablation time Tab that effects on the optical properties of the AgO films. The controlling of the optical properties thin films which were prepared by PLD technique could be arbitrated for certain application with controlling the ablation time Tab at fixed constant oxygen pressure. Influence The polycrystalline of cubic inverse spinel structure with the appearance of secondary phase was appeared at 900oC. The Raman spectra gave the peaks corresponding to the tetrahedral and octahedral groups. VSM measurements showed that enhancement of magnetization with an increase annealing temperatures.

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HIGH INDEX OF REFRACTION AND OPTICAL FREQUENCY GENERATION FORMED BY METAMATERIAL BASED ON PLASMONIC SPHERICAL NANOPARTICLES

U+1F5122016-12-17
S.I.Hassab Elnaby and Norhan Salama

Metamaterials have been one of the most attracted strikethrough scientific topics in many disciplines due to their achievable extraordinary optical properties including negative index of refraction, Near-zero index and ultra high index of refraction. The three dimensional FDTD method is employed for investigating the electromagnetic propagation through a proposed structure of metamaterial based on periodic arrays of gold spherical nanopaticles. The optical properties of the structure are investigated as a function of gap distances between the metallic nanoparticls. The structure exhibit an increment of index of refraction by increasing the gap distances reaching up to 10.16 at the gap distance (a=750nm) for incident wavelength λ=500nm with transmission about 30%. Interesting phenomena of generation of new frequencies (induced frequencies) with high amplitudes are observed. The induced frequencies are transmitted outside the structures.

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Fusion Energy by Ultra Intense Laser Initiated Nuclear Reactions with Aluminum Targets

U+1F5122016-12-17
Lotfia El Nadi1,2*, M. Ramadan3, M. El Nagdy4, A.Naser A. El Fetouh1

Ultra Intense Laser UIL interaction with Al27 target could possibly give rise to a nuclear rection of the target nuclei with the accelerated target charged ion in the laser field. The residual radioactive nuclei of Mn 52 and Mn 51 could well be due to evaporation of deuterons and tritons from the created compound nucleus according to the nuclear reaction: Al27 (Al27, H2) Mn52 and AL27 (Al27 + H3) Mn51 We here with report simulation of compound nucleus formation followed by particle evaporation applying Monto Calro code PACE-4 to estimate the possible cross-section for forming highly excited compound nucleus Fe54 leading to the final Nuclei Mn52 and Mn51. The results shown in the figure below indicate that the highest cross section of such possible two reactions is peaking at Al27 ions projectile energy ≈ 60 MeV (2.222 MeV/ A ) and 70 MeV ( 2.593 MeV/A ) respectively. The cross sections for production of the neutron deficient Mn nuclei resulting from the two above mentioned nuclear reactions of Al27 + Al27 are also estimated. The estimated crosssection of Mn52 and Mn51 positron emitters shown in figure indicate maximum values of approximately 30 and 150 mb at the aluminum ion energies mentioned above respectively. The nuclear reactions leading to Mn positron emitters are expected to also provide deuterons and tritons with the same cross-sections, The energies of these particles (H2 and H3) are calculated considering the newest standard Tables of the Atomic Masses. Possible acceleration of these emitted particles in the laser field is also expected. The Possibility of a new approach of fusion of the deuterons and tritons without implosion during the confined short laser pulse duration is proposed. In this approach an intense laser field equal or above 100 Peta Watt/cm2 would be needed. Simulation calculations for the form factors will be reported. The design of the experimental set up to be applied to attain such Fusion energy and overcome probable difficulties will be elaborated.

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CHARACTERISTICS of METAL SURFACES COATED by THERMAL SPRAYING and LASER COATING

U+1F5122016-12-17
Sameh Akila1, M. A. Hafez1, M. Atta Khedr1, Ali S. Khalil2

Two ways had been used for obtaining coating of Nickel – 5%Aluminum as a bond coat followed by Magnesia-Stabilized Zirconium Oxide(ZrO2-18 to 25%MgO), Calcia-Stabilized Zirconium Oxide(ZrO2 -5%CaO) and mix from them as a top coat on the surfaces of Stainless Steel 304 (S.S. 304) specimens; were Thermal Spraying and Laser coating. The Thermal spraying coating was done by Air/Atmospheric plasma spraying APS using a PLASMA-TECHNIK AG Switzerland and F4-MB (machine-plasma torch), however CW 1.06 μm Nd-YAG diode pumped laser with maximum output power 2200W has been used for laser coating/cladding LC. The microstructure and mechanical properties of both coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, wear resistance and microhardness tests. The measurements showed the preference of the laser coating/cladding over the thermal spraying coating; where the internal microstructure showed more homogeneity of LC than APS coatings, The LC process involved complete melting of the coating powder in the laser generated melt pool followed by rapid solidification. The hardness of the coating layer was approximately 1600 Hv compared with only 400 Hv for the APS coating.

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A HIGH-FINESSE FABRY–PEROT CAVITY WITH A FREQUENCY-DOUBLED GREEN LASER FOR PRECISION COMPTON POLARIMETRY at JEFFERSON LAB

U+1F5122016-12-17
Mohamed A. Hafez, Abdurahim Rakhman, Sirish Nanda, Al W. Tobias, Gordon D. Cates

In Jefferson Laboratory, Hall A experiments using a polarized electrons beam require measurement of the beam polarization accurately. The Hall A Compton Polarimeter (CP) utilizing the principle of Compton scattering of electrons from a circularly polarized photons measures the polarization of the electron beam from cross section asymmetry of scattered photons and electrons. CP is a superior technical solution since it is non-destructive for the electron beam. A high-finesse Fabry–Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled continuous wave green laser (532 nm) has been built and installed in Hall A of Jefferson Lab for high precision Compton Polarimetry. The infrared (1064 nm) beam from a ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier seeded by a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator laser is frequency doubled in a single-pass periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. The maximum achieved green power at 5 W infrared pump power is 1.74 W with a total conversion efficiency of 34.8%. The green beam is injected into the optical resonant cavity and enhanced up to 3.7 k W with a corresponding enhancement of 3800. The scattered electrons and photons are detected using an electron and photon detectors. All the devices of the setup are installed on an optical table which is located between magnetic dipoles (Polarimeter Chicane). The polarization transfer function has been measured in order to determine the intracavity circular laser polarization within a measurement uncertainty of 0.7 %. The PREx experiment at Jefferson Lab used this system for the first time and achieved 1.0 % precision in polarization measurements of an electron beam with energy and current of 1.06 GeV and 50 μA.

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INFLUENCE OF PLASMA FORMATION ON THE SUPERCONTINUUM GENERATIONBYFEMTOSECOND LASER PULSE IN PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBERS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Hisham A. El-Kolaly

The processes affecting the spectrum of the pulse is studied. Amongthese are self-phase modulation, nonlinear self-focusing, plasma generation, andgroup velocity dispersion. The combination of these factors leads to an asymmetric spectrum. If group velocity dispersion cannot arrest nonlinear self-focusing, selfphase modulation, coupled with nonlinear self-focusing, gives rise to a red shifted spectrum. In case plasma is generated, large blue shifted components are observed. The maximum blue shift is determined by both the maximum value of the electron density, and the distance over which the plasma extends. Interaction Picture Method in combination with the Conserved Quantity Error method for the step-size determination is adapted for the calculations.

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Growth of Gadolinium Doped Cobalt Titanium Ferrite Thin Films by Pulsed LaserDeposition

U+1F5122016-12-17
Mohamed A. Khedr, Aya A. Elamy, Mohamed A. Hafez, Hisham Imam

Cobalt ferrite thin films are receiving increasing interest in applications such as magnetic sensors, microwave devices, and highdensity recording media due to their high permeability, high Curie temperature, and chemical stability. In this work, a series of Gd doped Co-Ti ferrite (Co1.1Ti0.1Gd0.04Fe1.76O4) thin films on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are studied at different deposition conditions in high vacuum of ~2x10-6Torr. The thin films are prepared by Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) with 10 Hz repetition rate and 6 ns pulse duration. The Co1.1Ti0.1Gd0.04Fe1.76O4 thin films were prepared by PLD and followed byannealing at 300C, 500C, 700C, and 900C, for 2h in air.The thin films structural properties, and magnetic properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). XRD result confirmed that the single phase of cubic inverse spinel structure of CoFe2O4at 300, 500, and 700oC with preferred orientation (311) for silicon substrates. The polycrystalline of cubic inverse spinel structure with the appearance of secondary phase was appeared at 900oC. The Raman spectra gave the peaks corresponding to the tetrahedral and octahedral groups. VSM measurements showed that enhancement of magnetization with an increase annealing temperatures.

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STUDY and SIMULATION FUSION REACTION of ACCELERATED PROTONS WITH BORON INDUCED by HIGH POWER LASER

U+1F5122016-12-17
Lotfia M. Elnadi1,2, Omar Emara1, Dalia M. Osman1

In this work, we study the interaction of accelerated protons using High Power Laser with a Boron target through Fusion Nuclear reaction and calculate the cross section of production of Carbon -12 nuclei. Recently the progress of developing Laser systems has been rising with great pace. Experimental Physics of Laser produced Plasma has been developed accordingly. Now Laser systems capable of generating High Density Short Pulses can be achieved by several ways such as chirped pulse method (CPM). This method provides Laser beams with a high density and Pulses of duration about 30-50 fs which can be used in many fields. The interaction of such laser beams with targets of light nuclei such as Boron can introduce Inertial Fusion. A Simulation calculation of the interaction of accelerated protons by High Density Laser with Boron is being elaborated in this study The following graphs are the plots for the yield of the nuclear reaction between H+ and B where the proton is the projectile accelerated by laser of energies between the range of 1 to 300 MeV towards the Boron target. These cross sections have been calculated using the program PACE-4 which is part of the Lise++ packages that is based on the Monte Carlo method. In this graph, it was found that the highest cross section was 709 mb at an energy of 2.9 MeV. There were also other Carbon isotopes found as residuals to the reaction which are demonstrated in the following graph. Further part of the study will be a comparison between the collected data and experimental data performed using similar laser systems.

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PHOTODEGRADATION OF PESTICIDES USING CORE-SHEEL NANOCOMPOSITES IN WASTWATER

U+1F5122016-12-17
Dina Momdouh Fouad, Nader Kamel Abed elmoniem, Mona Bakr Mohamed

In our study nanocomposites of TiO2-Au and ZnO-Au core-shell nanoparticles have been prepared via colloidal chemical method. The particle size, shape and chemical composition have been determined via high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These nanomaterials have been used as a photocalalysts for photodegradation of organic waste for water purification. Primicarb is one of the most commonly used pesticides in Egypt, the degradation of 20 ppm primicarb under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light in the presence and absence of TiO2, TiO2-Au, and ZnO-Au nanocomposite was analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-Visible Spectra. The rate of the photodegradation and the catalytic activity of thesenanomaterials have been determined and compared. The results indicate that the core-shell nanoparticles is much more active catalyst in presence of sun light than pure TiO2 nanomaterials which has absorption maximum at 370nm.

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A SENSITIVE MAGNETO-OPTICAL CURRENT SENSOR FOR HVDC NETWORKS

U+1F5122016-12-17
R. El-Bashar, J. El-Azab, Salah H. El-Naby

Currently, optical sensors (OSs) have become a contestant to conventional sensors especially in hazard environments. Magneto optic current sensor (MOCS) is considered a new solution for measuring high dc currents in high voltage direct current (HVDC) networks. Moreover, it provides the ability to be interfaced easily with fiber-optic based Ethernet local area networks. These features make it smart in monitoring the condition of the network in case of failure. A MOCS with polarimetric configurations is estimated using a small optical glass sensor SF-59 into a gapped toroid iron core. The light source wavelength used is from a laser LED at 435.8 nm, the maximum current measured is nearly 3000 A being limited by the maximum output of variac. The output test result proves that the sensor become more sensitive in comparable with laser led at 632 nm and the ability of the sensor to be used as a current sensor in HVDC networks and protect DC motor.

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NOVEL PEROVSKITE – GRAPHENE COMPOSITE APPROACH TO ENHANCE THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LAFEO3

U+1F5122016-12-17
Ebtesam E. Ateia, and Seham K. Abdel-Aal

Graphene acts as an excellent supporting material in the preparation of a variety of nanocomposites. In the present study synthesis of LaFeO3/GO was carried out through citrate gel auto combustion method. X-ray diffraction, Field emission scan electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the effect of GO on the structural, magnetic and optical properties. The XRD peak shows that all the diffraction peaks of LaFeO3/GO nanocomposites can be assigned similar to a single phase LaFeO3 belonging to orthorhombic distorted perovskite LaFeO3 phase [1]. The calculated average grain size is in the range of 26 to 45 nm. The synthesized LaFeO3-graphene nanocomposite can be potentially used as a visible-light responsive magnetically separable photo catalyst and hence as a powerful separation tool to deal with water pollution problems.

[1] Xiao Ren, Haitao Yang, Sai Gen, Jun Zhou, Tianzhong, Royal society of chemistry, 2016, 8, 752.

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Enhanced Light Trapping in Thin Film Solar Cells

U+1F5122016-12-17
Mohamed F. O. Hameed, and S. S. A. Obayya

The potential to enhance the light trapping inside thin-film solar cell (SC) has been widely addressed to improve the SC efficiency and substantially reduce its cost. Thin-film SC offers a significant cost reduction compared to traditional bulky thick film SCs. However, the overall performance of thin-film SC is not optimal due to its low absorption. To address the weak optical absorption in Si thin films, several nanostructures such as nanowires, diffraction gratings and plasmonic scatters have been employed to enhance the ultimate efficiency of the Si SC.In this regard, novel light trapping techniques such as funnel NWs, and plasmonic thin film SC will be presented. The optical properties of the studied designs are numerically investigated by using 3D finite difference time domain method.The numerical results show that around 35% absorption improvement has been achieved using plasmonic nanoparticles compared to the conventional thin film SC.Further, funnel shaped SiNWs offer an ultimate efficiency of 41.8% with an enhancement of 54.8% relative to conventional cylindrical SiNWs.

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EFFECT OF HEAT AND LIGHT INTENSITY ON (I-V) CHARACTERIZATION OF CU2S FILM / P- SI HETEROJUNCTION”

U+1F5122016-12-17
M.M. Saadeldin1, M.M. El-Nahass2, K. Sawaby1.

Cuprous sulphide was deposited on p-type silicon substrate by thermal evaporation technique to form Cu2S film / p-Si heterojunction, and deposited on glass to measure the thermoelectric power. The thickness of Cu2S film is (d = 113 nm), the structure of Cu2S thin film investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). XRD pattern shows that the powder of Cu2S has a polycrystalline nature and also the thin film. By indexing the peaks, Cu2S is defined as orthorhombic crystal system with lattice parameter [a=11.82 Å, b= 27.05 Å, c =13.43Å]. Surface morphology and grain size has been obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). TEM) for a deposited Cu2S thin film shows a nanocrystalline structure with average grain size 43 nm. .The thermo electric power of Cu2S thin film was obtained and the seeback is positive refers to a p-type semiconducting. The calculated rectification ratio at 1 volt for the investigated device was found to be 4.3 at room temperature. I-V characteristic in dark at temperature from 393 to 373 Kelvin has been investigated. I-V characteristic in illumination at light intensity from 1400 to 22000 Lux has been investigated by change the distance between the light source and the sample. The I-V curves exhibited diode like behavior the obtained value of series resistance (Rs) was 104KΩ. The quality factor shows that the thermionic emission is the operating mechanism.

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LAYING-DOWN CONFIGURATION OF 4,4”DIAMINOP- TERPHENYL ON SI(001)-2×1 OBSERVED BY SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY

U+1F5122016-12-17
Amer Mahmoud Amer Hassan, Akira Sasahara, Hideyuki Murata, Masahiko Tomitori

To fabricate ordered molecular multi-layers over a wide area through π–π stacking interaction, the molecule frameworks lying-down parallel to the substrate are preferable specially for the light-emitting and photovoltaic molecular devices. The lying-down configuration in the layers is mostly dominated by the chemical properties at the interface between the substrate and the first layer molecules. For example, as a substrate, a Si(001)-2×1 surface has a large number of Si dangling bonds per unit area. The molecules with π orbitals deposited on the Si(001)-2×1 can be bonded with the dangling bonds, which are slant to the surface, possibly leading to their lying-down configuration. In this study, we examine the adsorption of 4,4”diamino-pterphenyl (DAT) vapor-deposited on the Si(001)-2×1 by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to pursue the stable lying-down configuration. An ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber system equipped with a molecule evaporator and STM was used. At low coverages of DAT, a number of elongated protrusions were observed, frequently tilted at ~17° to the Si dimer rows of the Si(001)- 2×1. The protrusions corresponded to individual DAT molecules. The stability at 17° was ascribed to three chemical bonds to the Si surface; each amino group at both ends of a DAT covalently bonds to one Si atom of a Si dimer, and in addition the center benzene ring of the DAT forms a bond, resulted in a butterfly-like lying down structure (Fig. 1) [1].

References 1) A. Hassan, T. Nishimura, A. Sasahara, H. Murata, and M. Tomitori: Surf. Sci. 630 (2014) 96.

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PHYSICO MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AG DOPED NANO HYDROXYAPATITE/CHITOSAN

U+1F5122016-12-17
S. F. Mansour a, S. I. El-dekb, M. K. Ahmed c

Nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan (n-HAP/CS) biocomposites with high compressive strength were synthesized by microwave coprecipitation assisted. HAP was doped with both Mg2+ and Ag+ simultaneously as the formula: [MgxAgyCa(10-x-y)(PO4)(OH)2] ;[0≤(x+y)≤1]. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results showed that the shape, size and crystallinity index of nano-HAP crystals in composites were similar to that of natural bone. Ag+ presents high impact in improving anti-bacterial effect, in addition; Mg2+dopant was a crucial factor in progressing the mechanical properties. Furthermore, mechanical testing exhibited that the maximum compressive strength of the composite materials was 15 MPa. The measured density was in range of 1.12-1.43 g/cm3. Multifunctional non-sintered materials show promising results in drug loaded bioceramics with improved mechanical features in bone tissue engineering.

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PBS QUANTUM DOTS: THIN FILM APPLICATION IN OPTOELECTRONICS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Shaimaa A. Mohamed

Semiconductor nanocrystal represents an attractive alternative to various vacuum-based techniques for application in optoelectronic devices. Lead sulfide is used as colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) to benefit from their size tunability, stability, solution processability and high quantum yield luminescence. These properties allow more photon harvesting by matching the band gap to the solar spectrum, making it a versatile absorber material when applied in solar cell devices allow achievingpower-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) greater than 11%.The full potential of colloidal quantum dots is not fully harnessed yet. The thin film properties of the colloidal quantum dots are still limiting the performance of the device although it applies the optimum device engineering. Therefor it is important to overcome the exciting limit by understanding the thin film in more details. Since few people know about the technology, it is essential that we raise its profile.

Reference: 1. Philipp Stadler, Shaimaa A. Mohamed, et. al.Iodide-Capped PbS Quantum Dots: Full Optical Characterization of a Versatile Absorber, Adv. Mater. 2015, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404921

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PHYSICO MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AG DOPED NANO HYDROXYAPATITE/CHITOSAN

U+1F5122016-12-17
S. F. Mansour a, S. I. El-dekb, M. K. Ahmed c

Nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan (n-HAP/CS) biocomposites with high compressive strength were synthesized by microwave coprecipitation assisted. HAP was doped with both Mg2+ and Ag+ simultaneously as the formula: [MgxAgyCa(10-x-y)(PO4)(OH)2] ;[0≤(x+y)≤1]. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results showed that the shape, size and crystallinity index of nano-HAP crystals in composites were similar to that of natural bone. Ag+ presents high impact in improving anti-bacterial effect, in addition; Mg2+dopant was a crucial factor in progressing the mechanical properties. Furthermore, mechanical testing exhibited that the maximum compressive strength of the composite materials was 15 MPa. The measured density was in range of 1.12-1.43 g/cm3. Multifunctional non-sintered materials show promising results in drug loaded bioceramics with improved mechanical features in bone tissue engineering.

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PBS QUANTUM DOTS: THIN FILM APPLICATION IN OPTOELECTRONICS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Shaimaa A. Mohamed

Semiconductor nanocrystal represents an attractive alternative to various vacuum-based techniques for application in optoelectronic devices. Lead sulfide is used as colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) to benefit from their size tunability, stability, solution processability and high quantum yield luminescence. These properties allow more photon harvesting by matching the band gap to the solar spectrum, making it a versatile absorber material when applied in solar cell devices allow achievingpower-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) greater than 11%.The full potential of colloidal quantum dots is not fully harnessed yet. The thin film properties of the colloidal quantum dots are still limiting the performance of the device although it applies the optimum device engineering. Therefor it is important to overcome the exciting limit by understanding the thin film in more details. Since few people know about the technology, it is essential that we raise its profile.

Reference: 1. Philipp Stadler, Shaimaa A. Mohamed, et. al.Iodide-Capped PbS Quantum Dots: Full Optical Characterization of a Versatile Absorber, Adv. Mater. 2015, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404921

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Improvement of physical properties of Cobalt nanoferrites via Gd/Er doping

U+1F5122016-12-17
Ebtesam E. Ateia, and Fatma S. Soliman

Pure nanoparticles of the rare-earth substituted cobalt ferrites with general formula CoGd0.025Er0.05 Fe1.925 O4were prepared by thechemical citrate method.The effect of variation in the rare-earth substitution and its impact on the structural characteristics, magnetic properties like saturation magnetization, coercivity and Curie temperature were studied.The average crystallite sizes of doped and pure Cobalt ferrite samples are21.49 and 37.7 nm respectively. The substitution of rare-earth elements in cobalt ferrite is promising for their magneto-optical recording application as they are helpful in decreasing the particles size of the investigated samples [1].Also theyalter the coercivity and saturation magnetization compared to pure cobalt nanoferrite [Fig.1].This can be clarified in view of weaker nature of the RE3+- Fe3+ interaction compared to Fe3+-Fe3+ interaction.EDAX spectra reveal the purity of the nano ferrite samples. The obtained data from EDAX elemental analysis is shown as inset of the figure. It can be seen that the stoichiometry is very close to the estimated values [Fig.2]. [1]Y. B. Kannan, R. Saravanan, N. Srinivasan, K. Praveena, K. Sadhana, J Mater Sci: Mater Electron (2016) 27:12000–12008

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Physical Properties of Mg0.7Cu0.3Fe2O4Nano- Ferrites Synthesized by citrate method

U+1F5122016-12-17
Ebtesam E. Ateia, and Amira T. Mohamed*

Copper ferrite has beenstudied due to its motivating crystallographic and optical properties.Nanoferrites of the general formula Mg0.7Cu0.3Fe2O4were prepared by Citrate- gel auto combustion method. The structure was studied by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer- Emmet-Teller, and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. The crystallite size was estimated from XRD broadening of (311) peak using Scherer’s formula(Fig.1).The magnetic properties werestudied by carrying out the hysteresis of Mg0.7Cu0.3Fe2O4at different temperatures (100,170,240and 300K) (Fig.2). The investigated samples exhibit low coercivity values indicating that the samples belong to the family of soft ferrites. The magnetization of all samples increases linearly with increasing applied magnetic field up to 5000 Oe. Beyond this applied field, the magnetization attained maximum values and then saturation occured.The band gap energy, which wascalculated from near infrared (NIR) and visible (VIS) reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function,decreases with increasing the particle size[1]. Furthermore, the band gaps are quite narrow (1.3–1.9eV), hence the investigated samples could act as visible light driven photo catalysts.

[1] M.A. Amer, T. Meaz, M. Yehia, S.S. Attalah, F. Fakhry, Alloys. Compd. 633, 448–455(2015).

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STUDY OF THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES AND THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF ZnO DOPED WITH CuO AND Na3BiO3

U+1F5122016-12-17
M. M. Saadeldin1, Osama A. Desouky2, Mai M. Younis3, and Marwan M. Ahmed4

Mixtures of ZnO doped with CuO and Na3BiO3 as additive were prepared by solid state reaction from the calcined oxides. SEM and AFM revealed the presence of inter-granular phase. Additives present in grain boundaries between ZnO grains.XRD showed that no binary compound was formed and there are increase in dislocation density with additives. The conductivity and the dielectric constant are highly dependent on the microstructure of conducting grains surrounded by this insulating oxide barrier. The amounts of additives affect the coefficient of non-linearity and breakdown voltage. Microstructure had been studied with SEM and AFM.

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Study The Genetoxicity Of Gold Magneto Nanoparticles In Liver Cancer Cells Via Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy

U+1F5122016-12-17
Ola S. Ahmed1 , H. Imam 2, Abdel-Rahman Zekri3Mona B. Mohamed2, Hussein M Khaled1 Mahmoud H Abdel-kader2,4

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique (LIBS) used in the study the effect of gold magneto nanoparticles on the liver cancer cells (HepG2) by examining the variation in genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.HepG2 cell line (106 cells) was cultured and expanded, after which, they were incubated with gold magneto nanoparticles at concentrations 10,25, 50 μg/ml at 12 hours. The effect of this nanoparticles in cell apoptosis as well as in autophagy were evaluated by both flow cytometry and acridine orange.Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining for evaluation of apoptosis in the treated cells at concentration of nanocomposite 10, 25, 50μg/ml showed increase in the apoptotic presented from 11.25% ± 3.1% to 28% ± 2.04%,39% ± 3.6%, 60% ± 4.3% respectively.The gene expression of apoptosis pathway was also investigated by apoptosis specific PCR array assay.The genes most high significantly in HepG2 cells were TNF, BIRC3 and NFKB1 fold regulation ratio of 158.03- fold and 149.2- fold. These genes expression profiles related to stress and toxicity pathways.LIBS results shows that increasing iron oxide nanoparticles concentration is associated with increasing calcium concentration in the biological cells. This effect might be due to increasing the probability of a calcium influx in single cells due to higher surface iron oxide loading and the degree of cell spreading.An increase in the calcium content in the cells have a role in program cell death was prove it by profile apoptosis PCR array.Finally we have demonstrated successfully that LIBS can be an effective technique for the detection of magnetic nanoparticles concentrations present in liver cancer cells (HepG2 cells) and study the effect of these particle through investigation variation in genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.

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STUDY OF THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES AND THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF ZnO DOPED WITH CuO AND Na3BiO3

U+1F5122016-12-17
M. M. Saadeldin1, Osama A. Desouky2, Mai M. Younis3, and Marwan M. Ahmed4

Mixtures of ZnO doped with CuO and Na3BiO3 as additive were prepared by solid state reaction from the calcined oxides. SEM and AFM revealed the presence of inter-granular phase. Additives present in grain boundaries between ZnO grains.XRD showed that no binary compound was formed and there are increase in dislocation density with additives. The conductivity and the dielectric constant are highly dependent on the microstructure of conducting grains surrounded by this insulating oxide barrier. The amounts of additives affect the coefficient of non-linearity and breakdown voltage. Microstructure had been studied with SEM and AFM.

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Study The Genetoxicity Of Gold Magneto Nanoparticles In Liver Cancer Cells Via Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy

U+1F5122016-12-17
Ola S. Ahmed1 , H. Imam 2, Abdel-Rahman Zekri3Mona B. Mohamed2, Hussein M Khaled1 Mahmoud H Abdel-kader2,4

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique (LIBS) used in the study the effect of gold magneto nanoparticles on the liver cancer cells (HepG2) by examining the variation in genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.HepG2 cell line (106 cells) was cultured and expanded, after which, they were incubated with gold magneto nanoparticles at concentrations 10,25, 50 μg/ml at 12 hours. The effect of this nanoparticles in cell apoptosis as well as in autophagy were evaluated by both flow cytometry and acridine orange.Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining for evaluation of apoptosis in the treated cells at concentration of nanocomposite 10, 25, 50μg/ml showed increase in the apoptotic presented from 11.25% ± 3.1% to 28% ± 2.04%,39% ± 3.6%, 60% ± 4.3% respectively.The gene expression of apoptosis pathway was also investigated by apoptosis specific PCR array assay.The genes most high significantly in HepG2 cells were TNF, BIRC3 and NFKB1 fold regulation ratio of 158.03- fold and 149.2- fold. These genes expression profiles related to stress and toxicity pathways.LIBS results shows that increasing iron oxide nanoparticles concentration is associated with increasing calcium concentration in the biological cells. This effect might be due to increasing the probability of a calcium influx in single cells due to higher surface iron oxide loading and the degree of cell spreading.An increase in the calcium content in the cells have a role in program cell death was prove it by profile apoptosis PCR array.Finally we have demonstrated successfully that LIBS can be an effective technique for the detection of magnetic nanoparticles concentrations present in liver cancer cells (HepG2 cells) and study the effect of these particle through investigation variation in genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.

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Nanomaterial Enhanced Emission using Laser Induced Plasma Technique

U+1F5122016-12-17
A. M. EL Sherbini

It was the first worldwide published article about enhancing the amount of light emitted from nanomaterial target based plasma over corresponding bulk material. Both plasmas are created via interaction of Nd: YAG laser pulses under the same ambient conditions [1]. This subject become world-wide-spreading issue [2-8] and was subjected to extensive experimental study using OES-Technique. The effect of different experimental parameters including laser irradiance (fluence), delay time, different laser wavelengths and different types and sizes of nanomaterials were studied over the past five years in different laboratories. After all, some conclusions were drawn: (1) The enhanced emission was found increases linearly with delay time after plasma ignition, (2) Decreases in a logarithmic way with the increasing laser fluence, (3) No changes in both of plasma electron density and temperature from nano-tobulk materials (4) This enhancement emission was found compatible with relative masses ejected from either target and finally (5) The recently published work shows that the main reason of signal enhancement can be attributed to the a significant reduction of plasma threshold fluence offered by the nanomaterial size reduction. In this review we will explore different experimental and theoretical aspects of this new phenomenon.

[1] A.M. EL Sherbini, C.G. Parigger, Wavelength dependency and threshold measurements for nanoparticleenhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, Spectrochim. Acta B 116 (2016) 8–15 [2] A.M. EL Sherbini, A.-N.M. Aboulfotouh, F. Rashid, S. Allam, T.A. EL Dakrouri, Observed enhancement in LIBS signals from nano vs. bulk ZnO targets: comparative study of plasma parameters, World J. Nanosci. Eng. 2 (2012) 181–188. [3] A.M. EL Sherbini, A.A. Galil, T.M. EL Sherbini, Nanomaterials induced plasma spectroscopy, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 548 (2014) 012031 [4] A. De Giacomo, R. Gaudiuso, C. Koral, M. Dell’Aglio, O. De Pascale, Nanoparticleenhanced laserinduced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic samples, Anal. Chem. 85 (2013) 10180–10187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac4016165. [5] A. De Giacomo, R. Gaudiuso, C. Koral, M. Dell’Aglio, O. De Pascale, Nanoparticle enhanced laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: effect of nanoparticles deposited on sample surface on laser ablation and plasma emission, Spec. [6] A.M. EL Sherbini, C.G. Parigger, “Nano-material size dependent laser-plasma thresholds,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 124, 79–81 (2016).

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PREPARATION AND CHARATERIZATION OF SOME SMART MATERIALS USING SPECIALLY DESIGNED ROBOTIC SYSTEM

U+1F5122016-12-17
Shereef A. Fareeda, Prof. Amer Mahmoud Amerb

The aim of the present work is to synthesis new magnetocaloric, magnetoelectric, piezoelectric and photochromic smart materials with improving the preparation conditions. It is well known; that Smart materials are designed materials that have a change in one or more properties in response to external stimuli. A second generation of specially machine with articulated robotic arm designed to prepare the samples with accurate physical parameters such as heating/cooling temperature, pressure, pH value and time of process. In addition, the system used to characterize the samples by measuring some of the thermal, magnetic, electrical, optical and mechanical properties.

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NONLINEAR OPTICS & LASERS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Walid Tawfik

National Institute of Laser NILES, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.Nonlinear optics is the branch in physics in which the electric polarization density of the medium is considered as a nonlinear relation with the electromagnetic field of the light. As a widespread field of applications in electromagnetic wave propagation, light nonlinear-interaction with matter leads to a wide range of phenomena, like phase conjugation, Raman scattering and optical frequency conversion. The nonlinearity is usually obtained only at very high light intensities values of the electric field analogous to interatomic electric fields, approximately around 108 V/m, which is over than million suns, so that such intensities can be delivered only by lasers. Moreover, a variety of the analytical tools considered in nonlinear optics are of wide-ranging character, such as the symmetry considerations and perturbative techniques, and can similarly well be considered in other branches in nonlinear dynamics. Consequently, numerous developments in nonlinear optics have been made, with a lot of efforts with fields of, for example, laser and maser in 1960s and 1970s. Nonlinear optics clarifies nonlinear response of properties such as polarization, frequency, phase or path of incident light. These nonlinear interactions induce optical nonlinear phenomena: second harmonic generation SHG, third harmonic generation THG and Sum-frequency generation SFG. These phenomena due to nonlinear propagation of high intensity laser light in some crystals will be discussed and its applications will be considered.

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FOUR-DIMENSIONAL ULTRAFAST ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (4D UEM)

U+1F5122016-12-17
Mohamed Mahgoob

The four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D UEM) is a cutting-edge technique which has become a promising tool for visualizing atomic-scale motions in all four dimensions of space and time, aiming to image the electron dynamics in real-time scale. In this talk I will describe the four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D UEM) developed at Caltech, which resulted in a number of patents and publications by Dr. Zewail as well as summarizing applications that investigate ultrafast phenomena with the time scale of a millionth of a billionth of a second, the femtosecond which is pivotal to understanding the dynamic processes of nano-objects. In particular, I will describe the photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM) allowing us to observe the Plasmon fields of nanoparticle via the measurement of photon-electron interaction. I will also present the latest developments in preparing the proper infrastructure and setting up the 4D UEM that will be operational next year and will be part of Zewail City’s facilities in imaging and nanotechnology.

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SOLAR ENERGY: THE ULTIMATE RENEWABLE RESOURCE

U+1F5122016-12-17
Lotfia El Nadi1,2, Samah Mohamed 2 , Hossam Hamed1, Adel Shehap1, Magdy Omar1, Galila Mehana1, Hussein Abdel Moniem1, Laila Soliman3, Mahmoud Hafez3

Argument that sun provides power only during the day is countered by the fact that 70% of energy demand is during daytime hours. At night, traditional methods can be used to generate the electricity. Goal is to decrease our dependence on fossil fuels. Currently, 75% of our electrical power is generated by coal-burning and nuclear power plants.Mitigates the effects of acid rain, carbon dioxide, and other impacts of burning coal and counters risks associated with nuclear energy. pollution free, indefinitely sustainable.  CAIRO UNIVERSITY PROJECT WILL BE DEMONSTRATED.  NEW APPROACH TO APPLY REFRACTION OF LIGHT ON TRANSPARENT SPHERES WILL BE EXPLAIND and ADOPTED INDUSTRIALLY AND SCIENTIFICALLY

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المجھر الالكتروني رباعي الابعاد فائق السرعة

U+1F5122016-12-17
محمد محجوب

یعتبر المجھر الالكتروني رباعي الابعاد فائق السرعة تقنیة متطورة, والتي اصبحت اداة واعدة لدراسة الحركة على المستوي الذري في الابعاد المكانیة والزمانیة, ویھدف لتصویر حركیات الالكترون آنیا. خلال كلمتي, سوف اقوم بوصف المجھر الالكتروني رباعي الابعاد والذي تم تطویره بمعھد كالیفورنیا للتكنولوجیا, والذي اسفر عن عدد من براءات الاختراع بالاضافة لعدد من الابحاث للدكتور احمد زویل –رحمھ الله- كما سأتحدث عن ملخص لتطبیقاتھ في دراسة الظواھر فائقة السرعة والتي تحدث في نطاق ملیون ملیار جزء من الثانیة والمعروفة بالفتموثانیة (عشرة مرفوعة للقوة - ١٥ ), والتي تعتبر محوریة في عملیة دراسة حركیات الاجسام متناھیة الصغر. وعلى وجھ الخصوص, سأقوم بالحدیث عن المجھر الالكتروني ذو الحقل القریب المستحث بالفوتونات, الذي یسمح لنا بمراقبة الحقول البلازمونیة للجسیمات متناھیة الصغر من خلال قیاس تفاعل الفوتون والالكترون. سأقدم كذلك آخر التطورات في اعداد البنیة التحیة المناسبة للمجھر الالكتروني رباعي الابعاد بالاضافة لاعداده للتشغیل في العام المقبل, وسیكون جزءا من مرافق مدینة زویل للتصویر وتكنولوجیا النانو.

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SOLAR ENERGY: THE ULTIMATE RENEWABLE RESOURCE

U+1F5122016-12-17
Lotfia El Nadi1,2, Samah Mohamed 2 , Hossam Hamed1, Adel Shehap1, Magdy Omar1, Galila Mehana1, Hussein Abdel Moniem1, Laila Soliman3, Mahmoud Hafez3

Argument that sun provides power only during the day is countered by the fact that 70% of energy demand is during daytime hours. At night, traditional methods can be used to generate the electricity. Goal is to decrease our dependence on fossil fuels. Currently, 75% of our electrical power is generated by coal-burning and nuclear power plants.Mitigates the effects of acid rain, carbon dioxide, and other impacts of burning coal and counters risks associated with nuclear energy. pollution free, indefinitely sustainable.

* CAIRO UNIVERSITY PROJECT WILL BE DEMONSTRATED. * NEW APPROACH TO APPLY REFRACTION OF LIGHT ON TRANSPARENT SPHERES WILL BE EXPLAIND and ADOPTED INDUSTRIALLY AND SCIENTIFICALLY

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المجھر الالكتروني رباعي الابعاد فائق السرعة

U+1F5122016-12-17
محمد محجوب

یعتبر المجھر الالكتروني رباعي الابعاد فائق السرعة تقنیة متطورة, والتي اصبحت اداة واعدة لدراسة الحركة على المستوي الذري في الابعاد المكانیة والزمانیة, ویھدف لتصویر حركیات الالكترون آنیا. خلال كلمتي, سوف اقوم بوصف المجھر الالكتروني رباعي الابعاد والذي تم تطویره بمعھد كالیفورنیا للتكنولوجیا, والذي اسفر عن عدد من براءات الاختراع بالاضافة لعدد من الابحاث للدكتور احمد زویل –رحمھ الله- كما سأتحدث عن ملخص لتطبیقاتھ في دراسة الظواھر فائقة السرعة والتي تحدث في نطاق ملیون ملیار جزء من الثانیة والمعروفة بالفتموثانیة (عشرة مرفوعة للقوة - ١٥ ), والتي تعتبر محوریة في عملیة دراسة حركیات الاجسام متناھیة الصغر. وعلى وجھ الخصوص, سأقوم بالحدیث عن المجھر الالكتروني ذو الحقل القریب المستحث بالفوتونات, الذي یسمح لنا بمراقبة الحقول البلازمونیة للجسیمات متناھیة الصغر من خلال قیاس تفاعل الفوتون والالكترون. سأقدم كذلك آخر التطورات في اعداد البنیة التحیة المناسبة للمجھر الالكتروني رباعي الابعاد بالاضافة لاعداده للتشغیل في العام المقبل, وسیكون جزءا من مرافق مدینة زویل للتصویر وتكنولوجیا النانو.

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New Retinal Image Processing Trends to Assist the Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

U+1F5122016-12-17
A.K.M. Seyam, A.A. Sharawi1, A.A. Eldib2

Early detection of diabetic lesions can halt progression of the disease and prevent consequent loss of vision, as exudates are a visible sign of diabetic retinopathy and a marker for the presence of coexistent retinal oedema. If present in the macular area, they are a major cause of treatable visual loss in the non proliferative forms of diabetic retinopathy. It would be useful to have an automated method of detecting exudates in digital retinal images produced from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes In this work we apply digital image processing techniques to detect the main anatomical features of the retina, and to extract diabetic retinopathy signs from retinal images. Various approaches are explored to localize the optic disc. First template matching is implemented. Then we use texture analysis combined with morphological operations and markercontrolled watershed to localize the optic disc and its boundary. Once the optic disc has been located, a Region-of-Interest (ROI) for the macular region is created. Then the macula and fovea are segmented. We have proposed various techniques to detect exudates, hemorrhages and microaneurysms by morphological operations combined with Otsu’s thresholding algorithm and FCM clustering. The methodologies are tested on a set of 130 images. The success rates of disk localization by template matching and morphological operations are 94.6%, and 96.9% respectively, and 92% for the macular region. It is also found that the proposed method for exudates detection by morphological operations detects exudates successfully with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 80.19 %, 98.85%, and 98.72 % respectively.

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Particle Production in 3.7A GeV 16O–Nucleus Interactions

U+1F5122016-12-17
A. Abdelsalam1*, M. S. El–Nagdy2*, B. M. Badawy3*, W. Osman1*, Mennah1*, Abdelnasser4*, and Mariem2

Experimental study on 3.7A GeV 16O interactions with emulsion nuclei is carried out. The shower particle multiplicity characteristics are investigated. Data are presented in terms of the number of emitted particles in both forward and backward angular zones. The dependence on the target size is presented. For this purpose the statistical events are discriminated into groups according to the interactions with H, CNO, Em, and AgBr target nuclei. The separation of events, into the mentioned groups, is executed basing on Glauber's multiple scattering theory approaches. Features suggestive of a decay mechanism seem to be a characteristic of the backward emission. This emission may be during the de–excitation of the excited target nucleus, in a behavior like that of compound–nucleus disintegration. Regarding the limiting fragmentation hypothesis beyond 1A GeV, the target size is the main parameter affecting the backward production. The incident energy is a principle factor responsible for the forward emitted particle production in a creation system. However, the target size is an effective parameter as well as the projectile size considering the geometrical concept regarded in the nuclear fireball model. The data are simulated in the framework of the Lund Monte Carlo simulation code, the so–called modified FRITIOF model. The multisource thermal model can predict source numbers, may be responsible for particle production.

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Angular Distributions of Target Fragments Emitted in 14.6 A GeV Silicon-Emulsion Interactions

U+1F5122016-12-17
A. Abdelsalam1, M.S. El–Nagdy2, A.M. Abdalla3, A. Saber3

Many results obtained from studying the angular distributions of heavy fragments emitted from interaction of silicon nucleus with composite target nuclei of emulsion at collision energy 14.6 A GeV per nucleon. The angular distributions of grey and black secondary charged produced fragments are well described through statistical model. The average emission angle is for grey particles and for black particles that are nearly constant for different projectiles in range of collision energy 2.2 to 14.6 A GeV. The predicted rational velocity by statistical model which describe the system responsible for production of secondary particle is nearly equal to 0.5 for grey particles and tends to be ~ 0.13 for black particles. The velocity of the emitting system described by parameter β//, where the emitting system for grey particles is fast with typical longitudinal velocities β// g ~ 0.13-0.20 while it slow for emission black particle in the range β// b ~ 0.008-0.019. The temperatures of the system responsible for emission of secondary slow fragments are found to be 58 and 6 MeV for fast grey and slow heavy fragments respectively. The angular distributions of slow fragments, grey and black particles show clear dependence on size of target nucleus. Most probable emission angles are in forward direction for interactions with light nuclei while it becomes symmetry around the middle angle for interactions with heavy nuclei. The emission system of these particles becomes slower and low temperature with increasing mass number of the interacting target nucleus.

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Fragmentation of 16O projectile in Nuclear Emulsion at 60 GeV

U+1F5122016-12-17
M.S.ElNagdy1,A.Abdelsalam2,B.M.Badawy3,P.I.Zarubi4, A.M.Abdalla5, S.M.Abdel-Halim6, M.Mahmoud2, A.Saber5 and M.M.Ahmed1

Topology of 16O fragmentation at 4.5 A Gev/c with emulsion nuclei is reported. The charges Z2 of projectile fragments were carefully measured and identified.The experimental measurements of partial production cross-section of the multiple helium fragments emitted from 16O beam are studied and compared with that obtained from different projectiles and various energies. We present results using a special type of events,selected to separate the events due to collision of singly charged particle Z=1 from 16O compared with collision of neutron from 16O beam. Those when neutron from 16O is collided. We describe a topological structure of such events.

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MASSES OF MESON SPECTRA IN POLYAKOV LINEAR-SIGMA MODEL IN VANISHING AND FINITE MAGNETIC FIELDS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Abdel Magied Abdel Aal DIAB 1,2, Abdel Nasser Tawfik 1,2 and M. T. Hussien 3

At vanishing temperature, the Ployakov linear-sigma model (PLSM) is considered in calculating sixteen meson states. Huge magnetic fields are likely in relativistic heavyion collisions due to offcenter opposite motion of the spectator charges and momentum imbalance of the participants. Influences of such magnetic fields can be integrated to the PLSM Lagrangian through a utilization of Landau quantization, a momentum-space dimensional reduction and a modification in the energy-momentum relation. We present a novel study for sixteen meson states, especially their masses, which shall be compared to the most recent compilation of the Particle Data Group, lattice QCD spectra and other models.

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NATURE - INSPIRED: ALGORITHMS AND APPLICATIONS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Kornay Hameda

Nature is a wonderful source of inspiration for developing optimization techniques that can tackle difficult problems in science and engineering. Since the early 1970s, various nature-inspired optimization algorithms have emerged starting with the Genetic Algorithm (GA) have been proposed and successfully implemented in different applications. However, because each algorithm possesses strengths and weaknesses, there is no single method within the family of nature-inspired numerical optimization algorithms that stands out as the best for solving all types of problems. Therefore, hybrid algorithms have been presented to balance the overall exploration and exploitation ability to improve the convergence capability of the optimization techniques.

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NEW TRENDS IN COMPUTATIONAL PLASMONIC

U+1F5122016-12-17
Ahmed Heikal

Center for Photonic and Smart Materials (CPMS), Zewail City of Science and Technology, Sheikh Zayed District, 6th of October City, 12588 Giza, Egypt. For any photonic device simulation, the accuracy of the numerical solution not only depends on the methods being used but also on the discretization parameters used in that numerical method. The analysis of optical waveguides with strong longitudinal and transverse discontinuities remains a defiance facing numerical techniques. In this work, three innovative methods will be presented to overcome some of the problems facing the traditional methods of modeling photonic devices, especially plasmonics. A new smoothed finite element method (SFEM) is proposed to analyse time domain wave propagation in photonic devices. Moreover, to accurately analyze plasmonic structures with strong discontinuities, a stable Bidirectional Beam Propagation Method (BiBPM) based on Blocked Schur (BS) algorithm is introduced. Finally, an accurate and computationally efficient rational Chebyshev multi-domain pseudospectral method (RC-MDPSM) for modal analysis of Photonic devices is presented. The efficiency of the suggested technique stems from using rational Chebyshev basis functions to accurately represent the semi-infinite computational domain; thus, eliminating the use of PML like absorbing boundary conditions.

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ULF GOMAGNETIC PULSATIONS DRIVEN BY SOLAR WIND NUMBER DENSITY OSCILLATIONS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Rasha M Emara

The magnetosphere of the earth undergoes oscillations of different periods and amplitudes. There is almost consensus that the variations are of solar origin, while the earth’s main magnetic field and secular variations are of internal origin. The magnetospheric (ULF) pulsations can arise from a variety of sources, and these pulsations are often observed to occur at discrete frequencies over extended intervals of time. The free energy needed to stimulate such pulsations can arise from local reconfiguration of magnetic stresses, wave-particle interaction, or a host of other sources which are internal to the magnetosphere. In addition, the solar wind can often provide a source of broadband energy which can then couple to discrete magnetospheric oscillations. Knowing that the real solar wind is variable, impulsive compression arising from rapid increase of solar wind dynamic pressure requires changes of the plasma and field properties through the magnetosphere. The present work studies the source of magnetospheric ultra low frequency pulsation focusing on the solar wind dynamic pressure and solar wind number density as a direct driver of these pulsations. The correlation between the solar wind number density pulsations and the magnetospheric magnetic field oscillations was studied for 30 events (in the interval from January to June 2007). The spectral analysis of the solar wind number density and the geosynchronous magnetospheric data was also investigated for the same events. Both investigations revealed a strong relation between the global magnetospheric oscillations and the solar wind oscillations. Keywords: Magnetosphere, Magnetospheric oscillations, Solar wind , interplanetary magnetic field.

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OMEGA TABLE AND PARTIAL MOLECULAR SYMMETRY SOLVE GROUP THEORY CHARACTER TABLE DEFECTS IN MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY

U+1F5122016-12-17
A. S. Abdel-Rahman1, S. K. Abdel-Aal

Group theory character table is a very useful tool to know important information about molecular activities and their spectra but suffers different defects such as the definition of the physical meaning of ω, the entire levels of degenerate states and the atomic motion through molecular vibration. On the way to define the infrared spectra, Raman spectra and natural frequency of molecules; it is important to split degenerate states and determine the motion of each atom through molecular vibration. While symmetry can be seen as the most basic and important concept in physics, higher n-fold rotation axis Cn symmetry element can be represented as full or partial symmetric rotation axis and governs other symmetry elements in the molecule thought the vibrational motion. Symmetry states and Omega-table which hold all possible symmetry states of the molecule will solve character table defects. Selection rules judge some of the symmetry states to be forbidden. Omega-table illustrates the relation between symmetry elements in the molecule through its translation, rotation and vibration processes and separates the degenerate states and then can be reduced to point group character table. Based on omega-table, the description of the atomic motion of NH3 molecule or any other molecules through vibration were so clear according to ω mathematical value and its physical meaning.

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MEASUREMENT OF SOUND REDUCTION INDEX OF LIGHTWEIGHT PARTITIONS USING TWO- ROOM AND VIBRATION VELOCITY METHODS

U+1F5122016-12-17
A.M.Shehap1, Abd ElFattah A Mahmoud2, Hatem Kh. Mohamed3*

Noise pollution has become another deleterious outcome of modern civilization. Nowadays, the usage of lightweight partitions in various wall and floor structures increases due to its advantages over traditional masonry partitions since they are easy to install and it can achieve the sound insulation requirements with low cost and low overall surface weight. Airborne sound insulation is the most important physical quantity defining the acoustical quality of buildings. In this paper, a comparison between two-room method that described by ISO 140-3 and vibration velocity method (not standardized) for measuring sound reduction index (SRI) of single and double leaf plywood and gypsum board lightweight partitions are presented. Regarding to double leaf partitions, measurements were carried out with the leaves separated by 50, 100 mm air gap. Space between the leaves was filled with a layer of either Rockwool or polyurethane in order to show the effect of cavity absorption on the sound reduction index behavior. From the results it is shown that, the SRI of gypsum board increased by 5-6 dB over plywood and it is also shown that a good agreement between the two mentioned methods except at high frequencies.

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STUDYING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INTERVAL BETWEEN ICME-SHOCK ARRIVAL TIMES

U+1F5122016-12-17
Rofida Saber1, Ramy Mawad2, Hussien M. Farid3, Shahinaz Yousef3

The estimation and characterizes of interval time between associated arrived Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection-Storm Sudden Commencement (ICME-SSC) events is the aim of this research. The travel time of the CME-Shock could be estimated from an empirical equation that depends on ICME's mass and velocity. It helps us to estimate the more accurate Coronal mass ejection's (CME) travel time reaching Earth. A high correlation was found between interval time and ICME's mass during the period 1996-2010.

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IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL DARK MATTER, DARK ENERGY; A QURANIC PROSPECTIVE

U+1F5122016-12-17
Shahinaz Yousef

In The Name of Allah, Most Beneficent, The Merciful " He created the heavens without pillars that you see… sūratluq'mān 10 "Allah is He Who raised the heavens without pillars that you see…(The Thunder 13:2) These two verses of the Noble Quran clearly are taking about the invisible dark matter and dark energy respectively. They are both described as invisible pillars. However dark matter is used in the very creation of the cosmos while dark energy is used in raising up the cosmos. We can see only 4.9 of the cosmos. Dark matter is an unidentified type of matter comprising approximately 27% of the mass and energy in the observable universe. The function of dark matter can be referred from the rest of sūratluq'mān10th verse. He created the heavens without pillars that you see and has cast into the earth anchorage, lest it should shake with you.., In analogy we can infer that the function of dark matter is to stabilize the cosmos. Dark Energy cause accelerated expansion of the universe contrary to expectations.

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ON THE SOLAR CORONAL HOLES PROTON AND ELECTRON STREAMS INITIATIONS OF CENTRAL ITALY AND NEW ZELANDSEVEREEARTHQUAKES IN OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER 2016

U+1F5122016-12-17
Shahinaz Yousef, Mohamed Ahmed Semeida and Sara Said Khodairy

As we are at the bottom of the very weak solar cycle number 24, the sun is dominated by very large coronal holes. The magnetic field lines of coronal holes are open, thus they are the sites of fast solar winds as protons and electrons can easily escape into space. Central Italy was struck by several earthquake starting 26 of October 2016 and ending 3 November. The largest was of magnitude 6.5 on October 30. A wide coronal hole in the solar northern solar hemisphere started facing the earth on October 26, enabling fast solar wind streams to strike the earth. Ground electric currents were recorded as a consequence of this coronal hole. The 2016 Kaikoura earthquake was a magnitude 7.8 (Mw) earthquake in the South Island of New Zealand that occurred two minutes after midnight on 14 November 2016. This earthquake can be attributed to another solar coronal hole located in the Solar Southern hemisphere. The mechanism of initiation of earthquakes due to solar streams is suggested as due to induced electric currents in the ground and magma below the surface that cause movements in the plates of the earth thus induce earthquakes.

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CHARGING STRATEGY FOR ELECTROSTATIC CONTROL OF SPACECRAFT: NEW APPROACHES

U+1F5122016-12-17
Yehia Abdel-Aziz

Spacecraft charging is a naturally occurring phenomenon in the space plasma environment, which in most cases is undesirable due to the deleterious effect on on-board electronics. Based on the fundamental physical principle that a moving charged particle experiences the Lorentz force in a magnetic field, one can deduce that an electrostatically charged spacecraft in Earth orbit is subjected to the Lorentz force in the Earth’s magnetic field. Early studies of spacecraft charging conclude that the natural spacecraft charging level may reach to about 10-8 C/kg and the induced Lorentz force with such charging level is insufficient to perturb the orbit and attitude of satellite significantly. The concept of Lorentzaugmented orbits is analogous to the motion of charged dust grains in planetary magnetic fields, After the launch of artificial satellites, the phenomenon of spacecraft surface charging was discovered and found to be omnipresent, and therefore the motion of electrically charged artificial satellites affected by the Lorentz force. However, much research relating to charged spacecraft are conducted by space-plasma physicists, and the primary purpose of their research is to attenuate the hazardous electromagnetic radiation effect caused by surface charging. Contrary to previous studies that concentrate on passive mitigation of the charge, a new concept of active application of the charge of spacecraft has been proposed by Peck in recent years [1]. Such conception spacecraft is referred to as Lorentz spacecraft, an artificially charged space vehicle that intentionally generates net charge on its surface to induce Lorentz force via interaction with the planetary magnetic field. If the charging level is several orders of magnitude larger than natural charging level or even higher, the induced Lorentz force could be utilized as propellantless electromagnetic propulsion for orbital maneuvers and attitude control. The Lorentz force acting on an electrostatically charged spacecraft may provide a useful thrust for controlling a spacecraft’s orbit and attitude control [2]. In this work, the Lorentz force has been developed as a function of the orbital elements. The orbital perturbations of a charged spacecraft by Lorentz force in the Earth’s magnetic field, which is modeled as a titled dipole is investigated using the Gauss variation of the Lagrange planetary Equations. The perturbations in the orbital elements depend on the value of the charge to mass ratio (q/m). The dynamical models of the Relative motion are developed that leads to approximate analytical solutions for the motion of a charged spacecraft subject to Lorentz force. The modeled derived when the chief spacecraft’s reference orbit is either circular or elliptical, and the deputy spacecraft is capable of established electrostatic charge. The numerical results show that the effects of the Lorentz force on the spacecraft are to change intrack position or/and plane orbit. The results investigated the approximation of the trajectory an estimate the reachable of the Lorentz spacecraft for short time intervals with different ration (q/m) for different orbits in LEO.

[1] Peck MA. Prospects and challenges for Lorentz-augmen-ted orbits. In: AIAA guidance, navigation, and control conference and exhibit, San Francisco, California, 15–18 August 2005, paper no. IAA-2005-5995. [2] Abdel-Aziz, Yehiaand M. Shoaib, Attitude dynamics and control of spacecraft usinggeomagnetic Lorentz force. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics (RAA) Vol 15 No. 1, 127-144, 2015.

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HAMILTONIAN MODEL OF FORMATION FLYING SATELLITESINTHE NEAR-POLAR CIRCULAR ORBITS Shaheera A. Altalhi*1 and M.I. El-Saftawy*&**

U+1F5122016-12-17
*King Abdul-Aziz University, 21442 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. **National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, 80203 Cairo, Egypt

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ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROSPECTION VIA NEW CUCKOO SEARCH ALGORITHM

U+1F5122016-12-17
M. Abdelazeem1, E. Emary2, M. Elgayyar3 and N. Sweilam3

Geophysical tools are non-destructive techniques used normally to explore subsurface geologic structures and buried objects. The goal of geophysical inverse problem is to determine the spatial distribution and depths to buried targets at a variety of scales; it ranges from few centimeters to many kilometers. To identify ore bodies, extension of archaeological targets, old mines, unexploded ordnance (UXO) and oil traps, the linear geomagnetic/gravitational inverse problem resulted from the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is solved using many strategies. The solution is usually affected by the condition of the kernel matrix of the linear system and the noise level in the data collected. In this paper, a regularized Kaczmarz method is used to get a regularized solution. This solution is taken as an initial solution to Cuckoo search global optimizer to refine the quality and reach a plausible model. The artificial intelligence methods are less sensitive to noise or ill-posedness. To test efficiency, the proposed hybrid method is applied to different synthetic examples of different noise levels and different dimensions. Then, to prove the applicability and reliability of the method, it is applied to different real archaeological sites.

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EVOLUTION OF THE BINARY NEUTRON STAR SYSTEM PSR1913+16 DUE TO GRAVITATIONAL WAVES EMISSION

U+1F5122016-12-17
Zeinab A. Mabrouk, M. K. Ahmed, Shahinaz Yousef

We have applied the method derived by (Imshennik and Popov 1994) of determination the elliptical orbits evolution due to gravitational wave emission on PSR1913+16. Our results are highly comparable with the latest analysis of that system based on published timing observations from 1974 through 2006 (Weisberg, Nice and Taylor, 2010). The comparison is shown in the next table. We plan to extend the system data analysis up till 2016.

Imshennik V.S. and Popov D.V., 1994. Astronomy Letters, Vol.20, No.5, 1994, PP.529-537.
Weisberg J. M., Nice D. J. and Taylor J. H., 2010. The Astrophysical Journal, 722:1030–1034.

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Tissue Engineered Hearts

U+1F5122016-12-17
Amr Zaher

Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs. The annual incidence approaches 10 per 1,000 population after 65 years of age, affecting people of all ages, from children and young adults to the middle-aged and the elderly. Heart failure is present in 2 percent of person's age 40 to 59 and more than 5 percent of persons age 60 to 69. In the case of heart failure that does not respond to medical treatments, hearts transplant the treatment of choice. Rejection is most likely to occur after the transplant. Patients need to take medicines for the rest their life to suppress the immune system. These medicines increase the chance for infection. Their long-term use also can increase risk for cancer and renal failure. The developing field of tissue engineering aims to regenerate damaged tissues by combining cells from the body with highly porous scaffold biomaterials, which act as templates for tissue regeneration, to guide the growth of new tissue. Engineer entire new hearts, will enable transplants without the risk of rejection by the recipient's immune system. The strategy is simple enough in principle. First we remove all the cells from animal heart then take the scaffold left behind and repopulate it with stem cells immunologically matched to the patient in need. The crippling shortage of transplantable hearts around the world may be solved.

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EFFECT OF COLD PLASMA ON THE BILAYER LIPID MEMBRANE

U+1F5122016-12-17
Heba M Fahmy, Asmaa A Hassan, Ghada F Abdelfatah, Salma Y Mohamed1, Mohamed H Gaber

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has many promising applications in biomedical engineering, dentistry and oncology. This study investigates the effect of CAP on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-glycerol-3- phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes prepared by the thin film hydration method which are used as a model for lipid bilayer membrane. DPPC liposomes were exposed to cold plasma 2, 3 and 5 minutes. The effects of cold plasma on DPPC characterization parameters such as size, charge, FTIR absorption spectrum, UV-visible spectrum and phase transition temperatures were investigated. Exposure of DPPC liposomes to CAP led to an increment in the size and stability of liposomes by increasing the exposure time. 2-min CAP exposure was found to increase liposomal size through particle aggregation, whereas, 3 and 5 min exposure increases the liposome size via adsorption of negative species emerging from CAP on their surfaces. As depicted from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, the electrostatic interaction between the CAP species and phospholipids acyl groups of DPPC resulted in the change of DPPC conformation. The hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules arranged more closer, especially with increasing the exposure time. Thus, it can be concluded that CAP alters the physical and chemical characteristics of DPPC liposomes.

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PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LIPOSOMAL THYMOQUINONE AGAINST DIFFERENT MICROORGANISMS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Heba Mohamed Fahmy, Nada Reda Abd Elkader, Taiseer Mohamed Abd Eldaim, Omnia Eid Ali, Ayaat Mahmoud Mosleh, Latifa Helmy Ahmed

Nowadays, infectious microorganisms show a significant tolerance and become more and more resistant to currently used antibiotics. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of Thymoquinone (TQ) (The main gradient of Nigella sativa seeds) either free or encapsulated in (1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine) DPPC liposomes on the antimicrobial activity of several microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus brasiliensis). DPPC liposomes and TQ-encapsulated DPPC liposomes were characterized by the measurement of the liposomal size, zeta potential, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UVvisible spectrum, transmission electron microscope in addition to the measurement of the refractive index. The encapsulation efficiency of the TQ-encapsulated liposome was found to be more than 90%. The liposomal size of TQ-encapsulated DPPC liposomes showed an increase relative to DPPC liposomes. Moreover, the results obtained for the zeta potential (-17.7 mV for DPPC liposomes versus -7.06 mv for TQ-encapsulated DPPC liposomes) indicated that the DPPC had become less stable due to the TQ-DPPC encapsulation, meaning a loss of repulsive forces between particles and a higher tendency of aggregation. DSC results demonstrated a higher phase transition of TQ-encapsulated DPPC liposomes when compared to free DPPC lisposomes indicating that the hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules arranged more closer due to TQ encapsulation. We also examined the antimicrobial activity of both free DPPC and TQ-encapsulated DPPC liposomes by the zone Inhibition method against several types of microorganisms. The antimicrobial action of both Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus species were not changed by any of the tested formulation. Free thymoquinone showed a moderate antimicrobial activity on Candida albicans, however, neither DPPC nor TQ-encapsulated DPPC liposomes showed any effect on the same yeast species. Regarding the Aspergillus brasiliensis, it demonstrated a mild antimicrobial effect by both the DPPC and TQ-encapsulated DPPC Liposomes. In conclusion, encapsulation of DPPC liposomes with TQ greatly alter the physical and chemical properties of DPPC liposomes. TQ-encapsulated DPPC liposomes can be utilized as an antimicrobial agent against the Aspergillusbrasiliensis fungi.

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OBSTACLES AND CHALLENGES IN THE TREATMENT OF BRAIN DISORDERS: EMERGING USE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE TREATMENT OF NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES

U+1F5122016-12-17
Heba M Fahmy

There is a widespread concern about neurological disorders. Unfortunately, most of the currently used treatment strategies for the handling of many of these disorders remain unsuccessful. In fact, drug delivery from the systemic circulation to the central nervous system (CNS) is restricted due to the presence of many extracellular and intracellular barriers. One promising solution to bypass these obstacles is by applying the drug delivery systems in the nanoscale dimensions. These nanosized drug delivery systems have many advantages over other conventional drug delivery methods such as: specific targeting, high drug loading capacity and in many cases, reduced toxicity. Grounded on this fact, nanotechnology could cause a revolution in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. In this context, I will start with the drawbacks of the currently used conventional drug delivery systems for the CNS and the challenges they affront to make their actions. Then, I will discuss the role of nanotechnology in enhancing the delivery of drugs to the CNS. I will present some examples of the effective use of nanoparticles in the handling of many brain disorders, especially: Alzheimer's disease, brain tumors and others. At the end, I will speak about the future use of nanotechnology in the advanced treatment of neurological diseases.

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PREPARATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF (STARCH/CHITOSAN/GELATIN) GLYCEROL PLASTICIZER-BASED THIN FILMS

U+1F5122016-12-17
Heba Mohamed Fahmy, Ahmed Samir Mohamed, Merna Mostafa Abd El-Hamed, Amira Bahaa El-Din Mustafa, Amena Sayed Elfaky, Esraa Samy Abu Serea

widespread applications in diverse fields such as food packaging industries, wound dressings (artificial skin), tissue engineering, antibacterial agents and carriers in drug delivery/drug release systems especially anticancer drugs. In the present work, we geared up for the first time, Chistosan/starch/gelatin thin films using glycerol as a plasticizer. The current study introduces a comparison between three different concentrations of starch-Chitosan-gelatin blends (12.5:12.5:25) blend I, (15:15:20) blend II and (10:10:30) blend III while using glycerol as a plasticizer in all the blends. The characterizations of thin films were evaluated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In addition, mechanical properties measurements (tensile strength, elastic modulus and the elongation at break %) were performed. The results of the present study indicated that blend III (10:10:30) showed significant increases in the tensile strength, elastic modulus and the elongation at break% relative to the 2 other blends. These results pointed to better mechanical properties emphasized by blend III. XRD demonstrated the crystalline structure in the prepared thin films. In addition, FTIR showed that the three materials used (Chitosan, starch and gelatin) were well cross linked together which resulted in a homogeneous mixture. In conclusion, The present study presented a flexible blend (blend III) made of Stach/Chistosan/ gelatin with the ratios (10:10:30) with good mechanical properties that can be applied in various applications. Further studies are needed to test the engineered thin films created in the present work in diverse applications such as food packaging, skin compensators or others.

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Evaluation of the efficiency of 99mTc-DMSA as a radiopharmaceutical in dynamic renal scans

U+1F5122016-12-17
Heba M Fahmy1*, Hossam M Yassin2, Islam M Muhamed1, Samar E Mohamed1, Shimaa S Hassan1

In dynamic renal scans, 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) is much used and give information about the renal blood-flow and excretory function. 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is employed for static renal imaging and can show also the renal cortical structure. The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether DMSA can be utilized as a radiopharmaceutical in dynamic renal scans or not. The aim extends also to compare the results obtained from DMSA with those obtained with DTPA scans. A comparison of the data obtained from the renograms of 47 subjects (normal subjects and abnormal renal function patients having: obstructive nephropathy, bilateral nephropathy, hydro-nephrosis, reduced or non-function kidney and/or atrophic kidney) that had 99mTc-DMSA and 99mTc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphies using the same protocol. Estimation of the left kidney, right kidney and the total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA renograms showed a strong positive correlation.Moreover, estimation of the time of the peak height from 99mTc-DTPA and99m Tc- DMSA renograms for the right and left kidneys showed non-significant changes and strongpositive correlation for both the normal subjects and patients with kidney abnormalities. In the light of the results obtained from the present study, it could be suggested that 99mTc-DMSA could be successfully replace99mTc- DTPA in dynamic renograms in the case of the renal conditions that had been studied in the present work. This will be money and time consuming, and will lower the radiation dose to the patients. In addition, the same qualities of results are obtained with both radiopharmaceuticals in normal subjects and abnormal renal function patients.

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Re-evaluation of Liquefaction Potentiality for selected pre-liquefied sites associated with 1992 Cairo Earthquake

U+1F5122016-12-17
Abdel Hafiez H E1, 3, 4, Milad Girgis1, Mostafa Toni 2, 4, Mohamed Taha1

A moderate earthquake (Ms=5.8) was occurred On October 12, 1992 at about 25 km south west of the center of Cairo city and caused a big damage to numerous poorly constructed buildings. Many seismological phenomena were noticed and studied after this earthquake; one of the important phenomenon happened is the soil liquefaction which was associated usually with the occurrence of big sand-boils that was observed in many areas near the epicenter of the earthquake. Recently different methods are used to re-evaluate the liquefaction potentiality, five different sites that showed high liquefaction potentiality during Cairo Earthquake, have been selected to re-evaluate for liquefaction potentiality depending on one the new tools. Shear wave velocity determination provide a promising approach to calculate the factor of safety (FS) against liquefaction, and resistance evaluation of sandy soils against this phenomenon. Multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method as a recent powerful tool is used to detect the velocity model beneath the studied sites to be used as input for calculation of factor of safety (FS) as an indication for liquefaction potentiality. The aim of this research is to study the potentiality of occurring of the liquefaction phenomenon in a pre-reported sites surrounding Cairo earthquake based on detailed investigation of the soil characterization. The selected five sites named Aquaz, Atf, Bedsa, El-Gammal, Zaweit Dahshour showed a high liquefaction performance during Cairo earthquake which forced us to re-evaluate and update our knowledge through the recent technique about the liquefaction potentiality at these sites. The Factor of safety obtained using shear wave was compared with the values obtained using SPT from previous study of one of the authors, the results show more improvement with reliability through this study beside the accurate calculation of the shear wave, which gave an indication that using Shear wave velocity is a promising tool for re-evaluation of the liquefaction potentiality.

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Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles meet laser light in the Cancer cell: following cell cycle, cell death, drug delivery dynamics and drug efficacy.

U+1F5122014-12-20
Mostafa Amr El-Sayed ‘s Group.

When metallic gold is reduced in size to the nanoscale, it becomes possible with weak resonant light to coherently excite large number of its conduction band electrons resulting in very intense electromagnetic fields. This intense field can decay by being either converted into heat that is used for the photo-­thermal therapy of cancer or converted into strong scattered light. The strong scattered light is used for imaging of cancer cells for diagnosis. If the enhanced scattered light from particles in cancer cells is spectrally analyzed, information about molecular changes occurring within the cell during its life functions or as it dies or drug treated can be revealed. By conjugating small concentrations of gold nanoparticles to the nucleus membrane of the cancer cells we were able to record its SERS (Raman vibrations) and/or its Rayleigh scattering images in the different phases of its full cycle1, or as it dies if given cancer drugs2, and enabled us to follow the dynamics of drug delivery3 and measure the relative efficacy of different cancer drugs4,5using either Rayleigh or SERS method of detection. Finally, SERS technique was used in developing a technique that enabled us to follow the time profile of the different processes involved in the death mechanism6 of a cancer cell caused by use of a cancer drug.

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High Density Laser Induced Thermal Energy for Water Desalination

U+1F512
*Loftia M. El Nadi1, *Magdy Omer, *Hussein Abdelmoniem , *Galila A. Mehena, *A.M. Aboulfotouh , *Khaled A. ElSayed,* A. I. Refaei, 1 Mohamed Ramadan, 2Mohamed Ezzat , 3Yasser ElBaz, 4Hisham Imam

We emphasize the importance of Creating facilities and programs for performing systematic studies at Cairo University relevant to Energy Production. Our goal is to utilize the thermal emery of inertial fusion induced by high density laser interaction with solid targets to desalinate sea water. We suggest catching up with what others already reached by establishing a pilot plant for studying the feasibility of turning the high density laser power to thermal energy. We plan to initiate unprecedented large experiments provided by high technological measuring equipments that are widely used in international laboratories, namely VULCAN in UK, HIPER in Europe, QBF in Korea, and NIF in LLNL in USA Such Laboratory for advanced HD Physics would be dedicated to the pursuit of Inertial Fusion Energy as a sustainable, clean and long term solution to mankind's energy needs whilst simultaneously provide a unique tool to do scientific and applied research that has direct impact on innovative industrial materials serving the Egyptian and the international Society. Other fields of applications are wide open to turn Cairo University to an International domain of advanced research. This would place Egypt on the Map of international research devoted to serve and upgrade society needs. It is worthwhile to mention that in Japan there are now more than 20 labs. In china 8, in Korea 4 in India 3, in Israel 2, in Russia several and in USA there are about 22 like laboratories. New Scientific young generation of researchers capable of handling and performing High Density Physics could easily be created through such project.

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Development of x-ray sources using PW laser systems at APRI GIST

U+1F512
Hyung Taek Kim ; Kyoung Hwan Lee ; Hyeok Yun ; I Jong Kim ; Chul Min Kim ; Ki Hong Pae ; Jae Hee Sung ; Sung Ku Lee ; Tae Jun Yu ; Stéphane Sebban ; Fabien Tissandier ; Julien Gautier ; Adrien Depresseux ; Jaroslav Nejdl ; Michaela Kozlová ; Tae Moon Jeong ; Chang Hee Nam

A PW Ti:Sapphire laser with 30-J energy and 30-fs pulse duration has been developed at GIST and applied to generate x-rays and energetic charged particles. We present the status and plan of developing ultrashort x-ray sources and their applications. We successfully demonstrated x-ray lasers and their applications to high-resolution imaging. In addition, we plan to generate high flux x-ray/gamma-ray sources using the PW laser.© (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

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Innovative Applications of Nanotechnology in Preservation of Vegetables & Fruits, Agriculture and Biofuels

U+1F512
Saiyed Alim Husain Naqvi

The power of science and technology is expressed through innovations which often results in rewards for society. The basic needs of society like food, health, clean water, cheap energy, transport, information and communication, good environment etc. are relevant even today. The society is still looking towards the technological advances to solve the age old problems related to its needs and alleviation form poverty. With the emergence of the nano-sclae technology i.e. Nanotechnology, hopes are high in every segment of social development for discovering novel solutions of the problems. The great physicist, R. P. Feynman who prophesied about the emergence of new technology had said with certainty that there will be enormous number of technical applications of this technology. The beauty of this discipline is that it is interdisciplinary, cuts across all industrial and technological sectors and is expected to lead next industrial and agricultural revolution. The soul of nanotechnology lies in the art of manipulation and control of matter at nano-scale, which has been employed by Nature for making things both living and nonliving since ages. Nanotechnology now leads an unending quest for knowledge and has provided a novel opportunity to climb a limitless ladder. This unconventional and interdisciplinary bottom up approach of manipulation of matter is sure to create wonders, provide simple solutions to difficult problems of human health and longevity, energy, water, agriculture, environment and may ultimately be successful in the creation of a prosperous and healthy society.

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TOTEM Measurements and Geometrical Picture

U+1F512
Fazal-e-Aleem*, Haris Rashid, Sohail Afzal Tahir and Talib Hussain

TOTEM measurements give us clearer picture of diffractive scattering at TeVenergies. Together with measurements at GeV energies, theory faces a challenge. In our recent work, it was observed that by using Generalized Chou Yang model we can give a consistent picture of hadronic radii. In this talk, we will give an overview of current and future TOTEM measurements together with theoretical explanation.

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Diagnostics of Electron Temperature in Laser Produced Plasma From Iron Target Using Plasma X-ray Emission

U+1F512
Mohamed Osman Awadalla and others

X-rays emitted from iron plasmas were used to calculate the temperature from the X-ray line intensity ratio. We used a Nd:YAG laser system, frequency doubled 532 nm, emitting 40 ps pulses at repetition rate 1 to 10 Hz. The energy on iron target was about 30 mJ corresponding to an intensity of 1013 Wcm2. X-ray spectra in the range 12 - 17 Å from iron targets were detected. According to Boltzmann law, a plot of the logarithmic term versus ΔE yields a straight line with slope equal to -1/T. The plasma electron temperature determined in this way was ~ 250 eV for Fe.

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Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene/zirconium oxide nanocomposite and its application in Photocatalysis

U+1F512
Braj Raj Singh1*, Sneha Singh1, Mohd. Shoeb1, Wasi Khan1, H. B. Singh2 , Alim H. Naqvi1

In this study, we have synthesized Graphene/zirconium oxide nanocomposite (Gr@ZrO2-NC) by in-situ polymerization method. The structural, optical, thermal, electrical and photocatalytic properties of the as synthesized Gr@ZrO2-NC were studied. The XRD analysis ensures that zirconium nanoparticles (ZrO2-NPs) have a monoclinic structure. The characterization data confirmed that the ZrO2-NPs were successfully incorporated into the graphene sheets. TGA/DSC results exhibited an enhanced thermal stability of the ZrO2-NPs as compare with graphene owing to the strong interaction between the ZrO2-NPs and graphene. The energy band gap as calculated through the Tauc relation was found to be lower of synthesized Gr@ZrO2-NC. We have applied the synthesized Gr@ZrO2-NC for the efficient photocatalysis of a Rhodamine B (RhB) dye. The photocatalysis results exhibited the promising photo-degradation of the RhB dye under UV light irradiation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, it is encouraging to conclude that Gr@ZrO2-NC has environmental significance.

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Radiation of Directed Gravitation High-Energy Photon

U+1F512
Kholmurad Khasanov

In electromagnetic field gravitation emits high-energy photon with direction reverse to direction of gravitation. This phenomenon was observed during gas electric discharge in [1]. Radiation of high energy gravitation photon was experimentally observed in numerous experiments [2]. The peculiarity of such phenomenon consists in the fact that while pumped by IR photon the range of the gravitation photons energies lies in UV range. The application of gravitation photon emission may be in energy source due to difference of photon energies mentioned above.

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Ultrafast processes on semiconductor surfaces irradiated by temporally shaped fs laser pulses: Tuning & controlling micro/nanostructures

U+1F512
P. A. Loukakos*, E. Stratakis, G. D. Tsibidis, C. Fotakis

The application of temporally shaped femtosecond laser pulses in the micro/nano-structuring of semiconductor surfaces is investigated. As an initial step towards full pulse shaping, sequences of double pulses with variable temporal spacing in the ps time domain with equal intensity have been used. Craters decorated with nm-sized ripples are formed following the laser-surface interaction depending on the irradiation conditions. The area, depth and strikingly the ripple periodicity show a dependence on the temporal delay between the individual components of the double pulses. Our analysis and explanation for the dependence of the micro and nano-morphological features on the pulse delay is based on our recently developed theoretical model that combines the laser-triggered ultrafast excitation and relaxation mechanisms on a semiconductor surface such as carrier excitation, ultrafast carrier-lattice energy exchanges and energy transport along with the slower phenomena of melting, the corresponding hydrodynamics and re-solidification that follow until the final surface morphology is established. The details of our model and our recent experimental investigations on laser-irradiated Si and ZnO surfaces will be discussed [1-4].

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Vicinal surfaces Si(hhm): templates for nanostructures fabrication

U+1F512
S.I. Bozhko , A.N. Chaika, A.M. Ionov,

Atomically precise triple step staircase with a periodicity of about 6 nm can be fabricated on clean Si(557) surface using special sample treatment under ultra-high vacuum [1]. This semiconducting template is very promising for fabrication of low dimensional (1D, 2D) metallic and molecular structures with unique physical properties. However, despite numerous studies of metal/Si(557) systems, the precise atomic structure of clean Si(557) surface is still controversial [1-4]. The results of previous studies suggest that it can be related to the formation of different step arrays with different local surface orientations, i.e. Si(557) [1-3], Si(7 7 10) [4], Si(223) [5,6]. Here we report high resolution STM and LEED studies of well-ordered step array fabricated on a Si(557) sample with a miscut of 9.5° from the (111) plane using special annealing procedure with electric current directed perpendicular to the steps. The STM data show that after precise sample preparation the triple step array is extremely uniform: On some micrometer-scale surface areas the number of periodicity breakings can be as low as one per more than one hundred hill and valley sequences. According to our LEED and atomically resolved STM data the periodicity of this regular grating on the vicinal silicon surface is 5.9±0.2 nm that is most close to the Si(557) surface orientation. STM studies show that despite the high uniformity of the fabricated grating, there are at least four possible step and terrace configurations maintaining exactly the same groove periodicity throughout the surface. The atomic structure of the staircase and sample preparation strategy for fabrication of high quality step array and different nanostructures on the Si(557) surface are discussed.

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Electronic growth of Pb nanoislands on Si(557) surfaces- STM studies and DFT modeling

U+1F512
A.M. Ionov, S.I. Bozhko; A.S.Ksyonz

The Pb-islands growth on a clean vicinal Si(557) surface at room temperature has been studied using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. We observed anisotropic tilted wedge-shaped Pb-islands to grow following the Stransky-Krastanov scenario. The elongation of the islands along the step edges of Si is associated with the anisotropic potential of the vicinal template. It was demonstrated that the growth of tilted Pb bulk islands is accompanied by their separation into layers which is clearly observed in the STM images as a slab-like stacking morphology, and also appearing from the statistical analysis. The single layer preferable thickness in the slab-like stacking like structure was found to be 2nm, which corresponds to 7 Pb monolayers. The results discussed in terms of electronic growth model. Using DFT simulations we argue that such growth mode is realized due to the minimization of the electron energy owing to the quantum confinement inside the created quantum wells. The growth mechanism can be explained in the framework of the electronic growth model including the interfacial strain and twin boundary formation. DFT simulation support that preferable position for Pb atom during growth of the 8th layer is hcp i.e. twinning boundary creation.

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Nano-Eyes: 4D Atomic Force Microscopy (4DAFM) of the Effect of Suicidal Gene Nanoparticles on Live Cancer Cells.

U+1F512
Hosam Gharib Abdelhady

The real time understanding of the suicidal gene effects on the cytoskeletal and nano-mechanical behaviors of cancer cells may provide new, effective ways in cancer gene therapy. Here, 4DAFM was applied to monitor the effect of targeted suicidal gen-nanoparticles on the morphological and nanomechanical properties of individual, dividing cancer cells in their environment. The mechanisms of forming the suicidal gene nanoparticles were also seen in 4D. Left; The transfection of single plasmid into a cancer cell, Right; the transfection of single plasmid-nanoparticles reaching the nucleous and kill the cancer cell.

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Dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by using dimethylformamide (DMF) solution

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*Mongur Hossain1, M.M.H.Bhuiyan2

The dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in liquid plays a crucial role in fundamental research and applied science. Ultrasonication is the most common technique to disperse CNTs. The surfactants used for CNT dispersion are ethanol, sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DATB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (NaDDBS). This research work presents the dispersion of SWCNTs by using a dimethylformamide (DMF) solution. The DMF is adsorbed on the surface of the nanotubes by a hydrophobic interaction. Ultrasonication helps DMF debundle the nanotubes by Coulombic or hydrophilic interaction, allowing the Van der Waals forces among the individual nanotubes to be overcome. UV-Vis spectra of dispersed CNTs in solution showed a maximum at 209 nm and decreased from UV to near IR. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) used to characterize the morphology of the SWCNTs thin films. And finally, the Fourier transform Spectroscopy was used to determine the interaction between surfactants and Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs).

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USE OF MULTILAYER TARGETS FOR ACHIVING HIGH PRESSURE OFF-HUGONIOT STATES USING INTENSE LASERS

U+1F512
Hem Chandara Pant

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Ionization and Excitation Rate Coefficients For Ar XVI

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A. I. Refaie

Absolute ionization and excitation rate coefficients have been evaluated for arbitrary excited states at certain electron temperatures kTe and electron densities Ne of the Lithium-like ions Ar XVI. The populations of 24 excited levels are calculated for the doublet state of the Li-like Ar ion. The calculations have been carried out by using the coupled rate simultaneous equations in which the monopole and quadruple transitions have been introduced in the calculations in addition to the dipole transitions. A theoretical population model has been developed to study the influence of the different processes that might contribute to the population of the different levels at the plasma parameters. The population densities of these different levels were then derived from these rate coefficients.

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The Control of the Sun of North Atlantic Oscillation And Expectation of Rainfall Abundance Over Egypt

U+1F512
Shahinaz Yousef, Mostafa El Rafey, H. M. Farid and Magda Moheb

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a climatic phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean of fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level between the Icelandic low and the Azores high. Through fluctuations in the strength of the Icelandic low and the Azores high, it controls the strength and direction of westerly winds and storm tracks across the North Atlantic. It is part of the Arctic oscillation, and varies over time with no particular periodicity. It is found that the sun controls the Sign of the NAO index. When the index is positive rain is abundant over North Europe and less rain falls over the Mediterranean. However, a negative index brings excessive rain to the Mediterranean. and drought over Northern Europe. According to our expectation the NAO switches to negative with weak solar cycles and this brings glad tidings to Egypt. Several deluges over Egypt are explained in this context.

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A New Theory on THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE

U+1F512
D. A. E. Darwish

In the present research paper we have discussed the followings: (I). The previous theories published on the birth and the development (Evolution) of the universe, namely: (a) the Big Bang Theory, (b) the Oscillating Universe Theory, and (c) the Steady State Theory. (II). We presented our criticism directed to such theories concluded with a statement that NO BIG BANG HAD OCCURRED IN THE PAST OR IN THE FUTURE and that ALLAH is the God and there is no God but He, He is the Creator, the Maker, the Shaper and all that is in the heavens and the earth glorifies him. He is the Almighty, the ALL-Wise, the ALL-Knowing and the Most Merciful. The Universe is expanding as His will and He is the ALL-Powerful and such expansion is not due to anything like a big bang. (III). In this section are giving the first four items of the New Theory on the Creation of the Universe. i. ALLAH had ordained the measures of the creation of everything in the preserved Book before creating the Heavens and the Earth by fifty thousand years and His Throne upon water. ii. ALLAH prepared the Universe for Prophet Adam (Grandfather of the mankind) and his progeny. iii. ALLAH created everything. iv. ALLAH has honoured Adam and his progeny till the day of Resurrection. DARWISH: Publishing my NEW THEORY the World starts a new ASTRONOMICAL PERIOD.

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Structural and magnetic properties of samarium bismuth strontium iron garnet Sm2.8-xBixSr0.2Fe5O12 (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.15)

U+1F512
M. A. Ahmed,*, Samiha T. Bishay, Sh. A. Fareed

Garnet nanoparticles Sm2.8-xBixSr0.2Fe5O12 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) were prepared by standard ceramic technique where the pre and final sintering were 950 and 1400 oC respectively for 10 hours with heating/cooling rates of 2 oC/min. X- ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried out to study the role of bismuth content on the phase formation as well as on the lattice parameter, density, porosity and crystallite size of these samples. The data revealed that the crystallite size decreased with increasing Bi-content from 102 nm at x = 0.0 to 28 nm at x = 0.15. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that, the porosity of the samples was decreased with increasing Bi-content. The magnetization loop (M-H) was measured at room temperature using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The magnetic measurements clarified that the Curie temperature, the effective magnetic moment and the saturation magnetization increase with increasing Bi content. The obtained results were interpreted based on the garnet structure, the role of Bi as a thermal catalytic agent and the effect of particle size on the magnetic properties. This work recognized that, Bi substitution on samarium strontium iron garnet revealed to establish new nano material used for different technological fields.

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Tuning of energy gap with Al content in SmFe1-xAlxO3 multiferroic

U+1F512
M.A. Ahmed, M.K. Abdelmaksoud, N.G. Imam, and Y. A. Saeid

Al doped SmFeO3 (SmFe1-xAlxO3; 0.0 ≤ x ≤0.15 with step 0.05) were synthesized by double sintering ceramic technique. XRD and FTIR were used to probe the structure of the nucleated perovskite. XRD and FTIR analysis confirmed the formation of single-phase orthorhombic crystals of perovskite structure. The optical properties of the sample were monitored by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. Diffuse reflectance spectra were used to study the surface properties of the samples. It shows three reflection bands at different regions. It was found that the band gap is tunable with Al content. PL spectra show UV, blue and red emissions slightly shifted with Al content. The PL intensity of multiferroic material enhanced with increasing Al content.

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Spin and Charge Density Maps of Nd2Fe14B

U+1F512
Abeer E. Aly

The total charge density and the spin density are obtained by taking the sum or the difference of the spin-up and spin-down charge densities, respectively. We performed a pure spin polarized calculations on Nd2Fe14B using the self consistent Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FPLAPW).In this paper, we present the spin and charge density contours for rare-earth transition metal compounds e.g. Nd2Fe14B in the (001) and (110) planes using spin-polarized without spin-orbit coupling. The charge density map and the spin density map on the (001) and (110) plane of the tetragonal cell show the evidence for covalent bonding between Fe and B atoms.

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Influence of (Glycine /Nitrate) Ratio on The Physical Properties of Gd3Fe5O12

U+1F512
M. A. Ahmed, N.Okasha, S.I.El-dek, S.F. Mansour

Gadolinium iron garnet (Gd3Fe5O12-GdIG) was prepared using auto combustion method and glycine as fuel. The GdIG samples reveal single phase garnet with cubic symmetry. The effect of (glycine/ nitrate) ratio on the structural and magnetic properties of the investigated garnet is reported. The results of the study show that the lattice parameter decreases while a remarkable improvement of the densification is obtained with increasing (glycine/ nitrate) ratio

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Enhancement of the Physical Properties of Ni-Zn-Cr Nanoferrite

U+1F512
E. Ateia, L. M. Salah and A.A. H. El-Bassuony.

The effect of Cr3+ ion substitution on the structural, magnetic and electric properties of Ni0.7Zn0.3CryFe2-yO4, where 0.0≤y≤1.0 is studied. All the investigated samples prepared by co-precipitation method and calcined at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis for all samples show that, the nanoferrite samples are pure single phase spinel structure up to y=0.3. Both of the crystallite size and lattice parameter decrease with increasing Cr content. Discussion has been made on the basis of a comparison of the effect of the average crystallite size and Cr3+ ion concentration on the electrical and magnetic properties of Ni Zn ferrite.

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Influence of B-site cation size variation of the physical properties of a canted AFM La0.7Sr0.3Fe1-xNixO3 multiferroic samples

U+1F512
M. A. Ahmed*, N. Okasha, and A. Abd Elazim

Multiferroic La0.7Sr0.3Fe1-xNixO3; 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 nanometric samples were successfully synthesized using citrate-nitrate autocombustion method and their properties were systematically studied. All the samples were crystallized in a perovskite structure. The Goldschmidt tolerance factor for the perovskite decreased from 0.91 for La0.7Sr0.3FeO3 to 0.86 for La0.7Sr0.3Fe0.8Ni0.2O3 confirming that the crystal structure is orthorhombic. All the magnetic parameters such as effective magnetic moment (µeff), molar magnetic susceptibility (χM), and room temperature magnetization (MRT) decreased as Ni content increased, while the Néel temperature indicates the highest value (834 K) at x= 0.1.

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Optimum Condition for Applied Ceria Nanoparticles as UV absorbance

U+1F512
M. A. Ahmed, Samiha. T. Bishay* and Mai. M. El-Masry

Three different techniques have been considered to prepare ceria nanoparticels with and without Tween 80 as a surfactant.Phase formation and crystal structure were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The particle sizes of the three prepared samples are 15nm, 5nm and 4nm. The measurements clarified the role of each of Tween 80 as a surfactant and the nanoparticle size on the values of zeta potential (ζ).The maximum zeta potential of un-surfactant nano-ceria in water medium was obtained at pH=5, accordingly, a neutral colloidal solution with small particle size without surfactant is suitable for medical applications. On the other hand, the results clarify that, UV absorbance depending on the refractive index of the dispersion medium and increases with decreasing the particle size for surfactant samples. These are interesting applicable results as a good coating, where the dispersed of small amount of nano-ceria in neutral water medium used to prevent UV hazards for essential fields such as furniture and medical bottles.

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Piezoresistive behavior of Multi Walled carbon nanotubes and Multiferroic nanoparticles / cement mortar composites

U+1F512
M. A. Ahmed, S. I. El-dek and M. A. Shawkey

A new stain/stress sensor technology was developed, based on the concept of using Multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Multiferroic nanoparticles. This new technology was manifested in concrete and mortar which greatly serve to decrease the crack depth. The use of sensors in civil structures is far from being common. In this work; there is no need to embed strain gauges or other sensors in the concrete, since the concrete itself is the sensor. The new sensor technology made use of new phenomena of the stress-induced electrical effect. This new phenomena is the change in nanomaterials/ composite contact electrical resistivity upon applying an external load on the cement composite. Concrete is somewhat electrically conducting; therefore it satisfies the basic requirement for the matrix of the composite material that senses using a new concept. The addition of conducting nanomaterials to concrete not only decreased the volume resistivity, but decreased also the contact resistivity between concrete and metal. A good electrical contact can be achieved simply by touching the concrete with the metal probe.

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The effect of dopant concentration on the thermal and opto-dielectric properties of GdCl3-doped polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocomposite system

U+1F512
Mohammad A. F. Basha

Newly prepared and well-characterized nanocomposite thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), containing GdCl3 with percentages of 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight, are studied to investigate the effect of dopant concentration on the thermal properties, stability and degradation up to higher temperatures (500 oC) utilizing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). A thermal transition of decomposition nature has been recorded for all samples in the range from room temperature to 150 oC. The heat consumed during this transition has showed a monotonic decrease with increasing dopant concentrations. Thermogravimetry has showed two degradation phases; at lower and higher temperature. Increasing the dopant concentration remarkably minimized the rates of degradation for the higher temperature phase. The effect of dopant concentration on the opto-dielectric properties was also investigated and the optical parameters, such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant and optical conductivity, were studied on the basis of optical data.

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Preparation and optical properties of PVA/Tio2

U+1F512
A.M.Shehap*; Dana Saif Akil

The composite films of PVA/Tio2 were prepared successfully by using the solvent-casting technique with different composition ratios of the two materials (1.25, 2.5, 5 , 7.5 , 10 and 12.5 wt%Tio2). Ultrasonic were used in order to get better dispersion. Optical properties measurements explain the effect of adding Tio2 on absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and electronic transition. The absorbance spectrum was recorded in the wavelength range 200-1000nm.It was found that absorbance increase by increasing the amount of Tio2 in the film.

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Fabrication and characterization of silica @ silver core-shell nanoparticles using modified method

U+1F512
M. A. Ahmed*, N. Okasha, and A. Allam

The nanocomposite particles of SiO2 @ Ag core shell were successfully prepared. Silica core has been synthesized by means of modified Stober process which was coated by silver to fabricate silica@ silver core- shell in 5 nm size. Silver nanoparticles were prepared by the reduction of Ag ions and PVP as a caping agent. Such core-shell nanoparticles opened new vision to be used in a wide range of applications such as: antibacterial, optics, electronics, catalystics, solar cells according to desired shape and size.

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Structural and physical properties of nanostructured barium doped BiFeO3

U+1F512
M. A. Ahmed, M. M. El-Desoky, M. M. Mostafa, M.S. Ayoub

Nanometric multiferroic samples Bi1-xBaxFeO3; (BBFO, x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25) were prepared usingconventionalsolid-state method.The structural, particle size, dielectric and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were investigated. XRD patternsshow the formation of (BBFO) with single-phase rhombohedral-hexagonalstructure.At room temperature,antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 is converted to ferromagnetic on Ba doping. A change in the magnetization is observed around (742-833) K. Spin canting or impurity phase could be a probable reason for the origin of ferromagnetism. The dielectric properties of the nanoparticles were affected by the propertiesof the substitutional ions as well as the crystalline structure of the samples.

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Synthesis and characterization of Tin oxide thin film, effect of annealing on multilayer film for sensing applications

U+1F512
Mohamed Shaban, G. F. Attia, M. Basyoon , Hany Hamdy

Nanocrystalline Tin oxide thin films of multiple layers were successfully prepared by the sol-gel method. Spin coater have been used to deposit the films. The starting material is SnCl21. The SnO2 material was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and EDS analysis. The optical properties (A, T, R) of the SnO2 thin film of various annealing temperatures (400,500,600 Co) and the electrical properties have been studied. Characterization results indicated that the products are composed of crystalline SnO2 nanoparticles which exhibit the cassiterite-type tetragonal crystal structure3. SEM revealed that with increase annealing temperature, the uniformity of the film increased. The variations of the refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (K) and Optical Conductivity with the wavelength have been studied. Nevertheless, the variation of the optical band gap with film thicknesses shows a significantly decrease in the values of the band gap with increase the film thicknesses. SnO2 was tested as a gas sensor to detect carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. It shows high sensitivity for various concentrations of CO2 gas2.

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The influence of pH value on sol-gel preparation of PLZT polycrystalline powders

U+1F512
M. Afifi, M.M. Rashad, A.M. Eid, L. Abd El-Latif, S.F. Mansour

The piezoelectric Lanthanum Lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) based ceramics with a composition of La0.6Pb0.94 (Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 were studied using sol-gel auto-compulsion method. The specimens were fabricated and studied to understand the effect of ph7 adjustment on the microstructure, dielectric and the ultrasonic mechanical properties. The material was characterized for DSC/TGA and TEM studies. A polycrystalline single phase of PLZT with tetragonal structure was obtained, for the powder calcined at 600 for 3 h and 850 °C for 3 h. The electrical properties of the prepared ceramics were investigated as a function of the frequency using impedance analyzer. The remnant polarization (Pr) and coercive electric field (Ec) were calculated from the ferroelectric loop by Sawyer-Tower circuit.

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EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND ADDITIVES ON THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ZnO VARISTOR

U+1F512
M.M.Saadeldin , M .Marawan and Mai Younis

Mixtures of ZnO and Ce6O11 as additive were prepared by solid state reaction from the calcined oxides with the following proportions 0.15, 0.25, 0.4 mol% . SEM revealed the presence of inter-granular phase. Phases developed were detected by XRD . XRD showed that no binary compound was formed. EDAX showed that cerium was detected in the ZnO grains confirming the XRD results. The conductivity is highly dependent on the microstructure of conducting grains surrounded by this insulating oxide barrier .The electrical conductivity was found to increase with the proportion of cerium oxide up to 0.25 mole then decreased.

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Nano-Molar concentration of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) in Wastewater by a Novel Carbon paste ion-selective electrode

U+1F512
Amal Khorshid, Ragab R. Amin, Yousry M. Issa

A novel highly selective sensitive for decreasing the detection limit for a Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) have been fabricated fromion-selective electrode (ISE).The ISE is designed using acetaldehydethiosemicarbazone complex as ion-exchanger in carbon pastedissolved in tricresyl phosphate (TCP) as pasting liquid were prepared.This work describes the attempts to develop the electrodes, measurements of their characteristics and determination in real samples.The developed sensors exhibit good linear response of Nernstian slopes of 29.5±1, 28.5±1and 29.0±1 mV per decade over the concentration range of 5.0×10−8-2.0×10−3, 6.3×10−8- 7.9×10−3 and 3.3×10−8-8.0×10−3 M and a detection limit of 0.26, 0.5and 0.3nM for Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) respectively. The sensors have a relatively fast response time of less than 10 s and the selectivity coefficients of the proposed electrodes revealed very good selectivity with respect to alkali, alkaline earth and some transition metal ions and could be used in pH range of 3.5-8.0. As a result the proposed electrodes were successfully applied to Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) ions determination in mixture solutions and wastewater samples and as an indicator electrodes for potentiometric titration of ions with EDTA. The isolated complexes, HATS were synthesized by the anodic dissolution of metal in an anhydrous acetone solution of the ligands where HATS is acetaldehydethiosemicarbazone ligand and ac = acetone. Elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, molar conductance, thermal analysis and spectroscopic techniques has been used for characterization and elucidation of the isolated complexes.

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The first-principles electronic structure calculations of chromia (Cr2O3)

U+1F512
Abeer E. Aly

Chromia (Cr2O3) has been extensively explored for the purpose of developing widespread industrial applications, owing to the convergence of a variety of mechanical, physical and chemical properties in one single oxide material. It is one of the antiferromagnetic transition-metal oxides which present a challenge for electronic band theory. So we used the first principles calculations to study the magnetism of Cr2O3.The electronic structure calculations of chromia are studied by using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method implemented within Wien2k package. The strong electronic correlations between the d electrons on Cr atoms are taken into account using GGA+U method. Here, we present the calculations of density of state (DOS) and magnetic properties of chromia. Our calculations are in a good agreement with experimental values.

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Factors affecting physical and physicochemical properties of NR/SBR rubber blends: I) Effect of blend ratio on the stress-strain characteristics for pure and carbon blacks filled composites

U+1F512
H. H. Hassan1, S. S. Abdel-Aziz, A. S. Abdel-Rahman and M. H. Soleiman

Blends of Natural Rubber/Styrene Butadiene Rubber (NR/SBR) loaded with different ratios of N220:N774 carbon black fillers were prepared. The mechanical properties of pure blends and those loaded with different ratios of carbon black were investigated. The (50NR/50SBR), 40N220/(50NR/50SBR) and 60N774/(50NR/50SBR) blends were found to exhibit the highest values of tensile strength and elongation at break. The theoretical Mooney-Rivlin model applied to NR/SBR and supports the result of stress-strain. (50NR/50SBR) blends loaded with mixed ratios of N220 and N774 were also prepared. The stress-strain study of them did not show any significant change due to the order of addition of carbon black. The values of shore hardness (A) for all samples were measured and showed a marked increase by increasing the black content.

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How Particle Accelerators Are Helping Us Treat Cancer?

U+1F512
Fazal-e-Aleem, Lotfia El Nadi

Cancer is currently one of the major causes of death. So far we have limited success in treating this deadly disease. In the recent past, use of hadrons is growing becoming popular in treating cancer using conventional as well as laser driven accelerators. Our recent works encompasses that. In our current talk we will throw light on accelerators including LHC and their use through hadron therapy. We will particularly focus on the progress made so far.

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Study of the optical aspects of suitable new glass for Radiation Shielding Applications

U+1F512
AlySaeed, Y.H.Elbashar, Y.S.Nada, S. U. El Kameesy

Lead oxide doped borosilicate glasses, in chemical composition 20SiO2-xPbO-(15+x)B2O3-5WO2-10ZnO-(50-2x)Na2O have been prepared using melt-quenching technique. The samples were examined by using Philips Analytical X-ray diffraction system in order to check the amorphous nature of the investigated glass samples. The effect of boron and lead oxides on glass transition temperature was carried out using Differential Thermal Analysis measurements (DTA). The results of DTA showed that both melting and glass transition temperatures decrease with the increase of lead and boron oxides. Density and its related parameters have been determined as a function of lead content. The optical properties of the glass samples have been obtained using UV-VIS measurements. The optical parameters, such as optical band gap, Urbach energy, refractive index, and electronic polarizability were estimated to study the effect of lead on the optical properties of prepped glasses.

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Entanglement and Geometric Phase of Nonomechanical Resonators

U+1F512
Mahmoud Abdel-Aty

We discuss different aspects of the relation between entanglemt and geometric phase of different systems. Information dynamics of charge qubits coupled to a nanomechanical resonator under influence of both a phonon bath in contact with the resonator and irreversible decay of the qubits is considered. The focus of our analysis is devoted to two qubits and the effects arising from the coupling to the reservoir. Even in the presence of the reservoirs, the inherent entanglement is found to be rather robust. Due to this fact, together with control of system parameters, the system may therefore be especially suited for quantum information processing.

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Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy of Nano vs. Bulk Materials

U+1F512
A. M. EL Sherbini

In this work, we present recent results on behavior of nanoparticles when irradiated with Nd: YAG laser pulses. The light emitted from plasma generated with a set of nanomaterial and bulk targets (ZnO, Fe3O4, Ag2O, TiO2, SiO2 and Al2O3) is compared for the same experimental conditions. The laser fluence was detuned in the range from 86 J/cm2 down to 2.5 J/cm2 with special emphasizes on the Ag2O nanomaterial. The targets are irradiated with nanosecond, pulsed Nd: YAG laser radiation, at 1064 nm in laboratory air. The spectra were recorded at the gate and time delay of 1 μs and for a constant spot size of 0.9 mm. The results show an exponential increase in the enhanced emissions with decrease of the laser fluence. The reversed behavior is discussed here. On the other hand, the laser fluence was kept at a constant level while the delay was changed in equal steps of 1 μs. The measurement of plasma parameters when utilizing optical emission spectroscopy technique reveals no significant variation of the relative electron density and temperature with laser fluence or delay time. The variation of the relative concentration with laser fluence, after correcting the measured spectral lines for self-absorption, attests that the enhanced emission can be attributed only to the relative concentrations. Possible explanations are based on changes in the physical properties of the nanomaterial upon subjected to high power laser pulses.

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New Trends For waste water by Electro-spraying Corona Discharge

U+1F512
Farouk Elakshar

New technologies are required always to find new methods for water treatments and solve waste water problems .Among the new techniques for waste water treatment there are: 1-the treatment of water by ozone (Garamoon et al., 2002), 2-AOP: advanced oxidation processes e.g. 1-photocatalysis on TiO2 surface (Feryal & Nur, 2003), 2-Fenton and photofenton process (Fares et al., 2008), 3-electrical discharge (Junwen et al., 2009),…..etc . Corona discharge is considered as one of the most efficient techniques in AOP processes (Sun et al., 1999). Generation of highly reactive oxidants, such as hydroxyl radical OH, atomic oxygen O, ozone O3 and hydrogen peroxide H2O2, has been obtained using corona discharge (Anpilov et al. 2001, Šunka et al., 1999, Malik et al., 2002 and Zhengguang et al., 2005). Unlike the methods which used under water corona discharge, the objective of the present work is to introduce a new design for waste water treatment using electro-spraying corona discharge system. The Advantage of Electro-spraying Corona Discharge system is that the surface area of the water is sprayed by the electro-spraying corona where the sprayed water passed through the entire regions of the corona discharge itself.

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Methane Reforming Through spark discharge

U+1F512
A. Abd Elradi, A. Samir, N. Morgan, M. Elsabagh, S. Hassaballa , F. F. Elaksha, A. A. Garamoon

Spark discharge has been used as a source of atmospheric non thermal plasma for methane reforming. Hollow electrode and gliding arc discharge have been used for the reforming process. Optimization and characterization of the two discharge systems have been investigated for maximum methane reforming. The two discharge systems work in two different range of methane flow rate, the first one is efficient for small flow rate (50-300 sccm), while the second one is efficient at high flow rate (100-5000 sccm). Maximum volume percentage of Hydrogen of about 83 % has been reached for the first system and maximum efficiency of the second system of about 75 gm/kWh has been reach for the second system .

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TRANSIENT TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN AUTOMATED PULSED PUMPING PASSIVELY Q-SWITCHED Yb:YAG SOLID-STATE LASER

U+1F512
Jala M. El-Azab, Hamed M. Kandel

In this work, an enhanced technique for pulsed pumping was proposed denoted by Automated Pulsed Pumping (APP) technique. In this technique, a controlled system was suggested to detect the generation of the output pulse and control the pumping level. The technique is applied to a diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser passively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber by numerically solving the coupled rate equations describing the system. The thermal distribution, within the laser active medium of Q-switched solid-state lasers when subjected to APP, has been studied by solving the coupled laser rate equations simultaneously with the thermal conductivity equation. The thermal transient time and focal length in the cylindrical coordinates were also calculated.

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TRANSIENT TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN AUTOMATED PULSED PUMPING PASSIVELY Q-SWITCHED Yb:YAG SOLID-STATE LASER

U+1F512
Jala M. El-Azab, Hamed M. Kandel

In this work, an enhanced technique for pulsed pumping was proposed denoted by Automated Pulsed Pumping (APP) technique. In this technique, a controlled system was suggested to detect the generation of the output pulse and control the pumping level. The technique is applied to a diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser passively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber by numerically solving the coupled rate equations describing the system. The thermal distribution, within the laser active medium of Q-switched solid-state lasers when subjected to APP, has been studied by solving the coupled laser rate equations simultaneously with the thermal conductivity equation. The thermal transient time and focal length in the cylindrical coordinates were also calculated.

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Full wave solution and simulations of laser pulse amplification

U+1F512
M. A. Khereldeen, M. Kotb, Osama M. Yassin

The need for low cost, compact, high- power laser systems with their applications in medicine and high energy physics is growing rapidly. Counter propagating laser pulses amplification promise a breakthrough by the use of much smaller amplifying media, that is, millimeter plasma scale. The full-wave solution for the two laser pulses interact in almost homogenous or plasma channel is conducted along with particle-in-cell simulation for the same pulses parameters. Motivated by the promise of reduced cost and complexity of the intense lasers, the amplitudes of laser pulses are taken to be small (a0 < 1). The growth rate of the seed pulse and the dephasing limitations are calculated. The results show that the energy is transferred from the pump pulse to the seed pulse effectively depending on the length of amplification and the isolation of the limiting conditions. A wide variety of system parameters such as frequency of laser pulses, plasma density matched to three waves interaction, and intensity of the pump wave and seed wave are studied. The influence of plasma and pulses parameters on simulation results are thoroughly investigated using a moving window technique and are compared with theoretical and numerical predictions. The comparison shows that the numerical full wave solution is very sensitive to any plasma density changes near the entrance of the pump pulse into the plasma.

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Liquid Phase Pulsed Laser Ablated TiO2 Nanoparticles Applied to Self-Cleaning Surfaces

U+1F512
Lotfia El Nadi, Mounir F. Habib, Iftitan Azzooz

In this study, TiO2 nano-crystalline structures are fabricated using the LP-PLA technique. Nano-structural investigation was carried out by Electron Microscopy Measurements TEM, HRTEM, SEM , EDX and Electron Diffraction measurements. Optical properties were also determined by measuring absorption, emission and luminescence spectra of the Nano-crystalline TiO2. We then prepared a simple self-cleaning paint loaded with the TiO2 nanocrystals of different structural and/or optical properties. Coatings of the paint were made on aluminum, stainless steel and plastic surfaces representing materials applied in preserving food and medical systems. Self-cleaning of outdoor surfaces such as ceramics and cementious materials used in buildings were prepared by immediate loading with TiO2 nanoparticles and tested. In order to verify self-cleaning performances of photocatalytic cements/concretes, tests mainly based upon the degradation of methylen blue color and measuring the water contact angle for providing self-cleaning performances were carried out for materials. The experimental results introduce new information on visible light photocatalytic technologies of nano- TiO2 in providing self cleaning and antimicrobial surfaces often used in the open environment such as every day use of home utensils, buildings, and medical needed hygienic tools.

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Atmospheric Pressure cold plasma jet for Biomedical Applications

U+1F512
Nasser N.Morgan, Mansour A.Elsabag, Ahmed AbdElRadi

ortant role in various applications such as material processing, and biomedical applications. Atmospheric Plasma jet (APJ) is one of the most widely used methods for generating non thermal atmospheric plasma. The jet plume consists of various groups of highly reactive chemical agents such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) including oxygen atoms O, hydroxyl group OH, hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and Ozone O3. The new field of plasma medicine is rapidly advancing toward the development of new medical therapies such as skin diseases, disinfection of dental cavities, dermatology, cancer treatment, and many others. The ROS generated by plasma jet can penetrate the cells and might induce high levels of DNA damage, resulting in apoptosis. The main goal of the paper is design and characterize atmospheric plasma jet APJ with high electron density and high reactive oxygen species (ROS) that targeting different types of cancer cell line (in-vitro) and other biomedical applications, through ROS-reaction mechanisms which can enhance the role of cold plasma cancer and medical therapy in Egypt. A schematic diagram and real photo of a dielectric barrier discharge plasma APJ is shown in figure 1a,b that is designed in our Lab.

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Aluminum tris-quinolate complex thin film producing novel blue laser

U+1F512
Ragab R. Amin, Lotfia El-Nadi

High-quality Aluminum-tris-quinolate complex (Alq3) with oxasene Nile Blue (NB) layers were grown on glass substrates by thermal evaporation under vacuum. The photo-luminescence spectra show three distinctive peaks and their relative intensities change with mixture relative concentrations. The major emission peak at 4100 ± 20 Å has been identified. The I- V characteristics show a Schottky diode behavior for thin film double layers of NB-(Alq3-NB) mixture. Planer Blue Laser emission took place parallel to the substrate surface and perpendicular to the electric field direction starting at V = 0.28 ± 0.05 V. Threshold current of 0.088±0.012 mA and optical power densities up to 0.5 mW/cm2 were determined.

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Liquid Crystal Photonic crystal Devices

U+1F512
Salah Obbaya

Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) have attracted the interest of many researchers in recent years due to their unusual optical properties. PCFs can be endlessly single mode over a wide wavelength range, and can be tailored to achieve nearly zero and flat dispersion over a wide range of wavelengths. Recently, some attention has been devoted to the possibility of infiltration of the air holes with different materials such as polymer, oil, or liquid crystal (LC). However, PCF structure infiltrated with a LC has unique and uncommon propagation and polarization properties. In this talk, novel designs of high birefringence LC PCF infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal (NLC-PCF) are presented and analyzed. In addition, due to their different uses in communication systems, the performance of novel designs of high tunable polarization rotator, directional coupler, polarization splitter, and multiplexer-demultiplexer based on the NLC-PCF will be introduced. Moreover, LC Photonic crystal based optical router and image encryption will be presented. The simulation results are obtained using full vectorial finite difference method, and full vectorial finite difference beam propagation method, finite difference time domain method (FDTD) with nonuniform meshing capabilities and perfect matched layer boundary conditions.

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How to Optimally Collect Hyperentangled photons.

U+1F512
S. F. Hegazy, J. El-Azab, Y. A. Badr, S. S. A. Obayya.

The creation of hyperentangled photons entails the two-photon emission over relatively wide extent in frequency and transverse space; generated photons are thus simultaneously entangled in energy, momentum and polarization. Because the creation process runs in nonlinear domain(s) which is always dispersive and birefringent, the output two-photon state undergoes loss of relative-phase coherence over frequency and space. This offers the vital role of spatial-spectral phase compensation so as to restore partially the state coherence in the two degrees of freedom. Behind compensation, the two-photon state emerges with much better phase flatness allowing collection over wider spatial and spectral ranges. However, as the spatial or spectral modes become further from the central compensated modes, stronger phase variations appears to dominate the scene. This excites two important experimental questions; what is the optimal combination of spatial and spectral filters a) that minimizes the overall phase variations at a given two-photon flux counts? b) that maximizes the two-photon counts at some accepted phase range? Here we address an experimentally convenient approach to determine the best answers of these two questions. The optimization process of the throughput-purity trade-off draws the main guidelines to design hyperentanglement sources whose intrinsic role in several protocols of quantum information and quantum computation.

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Absorption Spectroscopy with Frequency Comb Lasers for Breath Analysis

U+1F512
T. Mohamed, F. Zhu, J. Strohaber, A. A. Kolomenskii , Hans A Schuessler

Absorption laser spectroscopy ALS is a powerful technique for qualitative and quantitative studies of atoms and molecules in trace concentrations. As such ALS has applications not only in physics and chemistry but also in biology, environmental monitoring, and medicine. In the later field the analysis of the human breath is very useful for health monitoring and a rapidly expanding field for medical instrumentation, In this connection we developed an optical multi-pass cell based on highly reflecting confocal mirrors, achieving both long optical paths and dense atom space (volume) coverage to obtain high-sensitivity and high-selectivity . The system uses six mirrors, and we demonstrate a path-length of 300 m in a cell of only of 0.5 m in lenght. Different volume fillings and path lengths were achieved by tilting the mirrors with angles ≤ 0.05 radians. Spectrally resolved absorption measurements in the near IR of the greenhouse gases CO2, CO, and CH4 were carried out using a broadband frequency comb Er+ fiber laser beam including Raman shifting in a highly nonlinear fiber to an optical range spanning from 1.5 μm to 1.7 μm. Initially we recorded the absorption spectra of the first overtone rovibrational band for CO2, CO, and CH4 , and in the future we plan to quantify minute concentrations of additional biomarker gases and measure isotope ratios. In the case of methane a signal to noise ratio S/N=120 was obtained, yielding the estimated theoretical sensitivity of 6 ppmv, which can be further improved by optimizing the number of passes. Our optical apparatus is portable and can be used for a wide range of applications, including environmental monitoring, combustion processes, other medical diagnostics, and fundamental atomic and molecular physics studies. This work is supported by the Robert A. Welch Foundation grant No. A1546. The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

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Study of refractive index for glass laser medium by using Clausius-Mossotti method

U+1F512
Y.H.Elbashar , Y.S.Nada

The present work study the refractive index by using Clausius-Mossotti method, which deals with the ion refraction of the atoms for glass system with chemical composition as (x-42) B2O3. (100-x) Na2CO3.40ZnO.2Nd2O3 (where x=100, 95, 90, 85,80and75), density was measured, and the molar mass, refractive index, molar refraction, reflectance, phase velocity, Brewster angle, polarizability, electric susceptibility and elasto optic coefficient were estimated.

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ELI-ALPS Gas High Harmonic Generation Beamlines

U+1F512
T. Mohamed, K. Varju, P. Dombi, Z. Diveki, S. Kuehn, P. Tzallas, G. Sansone, D. Charalambidis

Gas high-order harmonics generated (GHHG) by the nonlinear interaction of an intense ultrashort laser pulse with atoms or molecules are now used in many fields including atomic, molecular, plasma, and solid state physics. The interest in the generated radiation results from unique features like tunability over the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) spectral regions (reaching several keV), good beam quality, and ultrashort pulse duration down to the attosecond range. Currently many efforts are devoted to increase both the conversion efficiency of the GHHG process and thus the photon flux of the emitted XUV radiation. For this purpose ELI-ALPS are developing several GHHG beamlines. The main target of these beamlines is to provide the users of the ELI-ALPS facility with state-of-the-art attosecond pulses to perform pump-probe experiments with attosecond time synchronization between IR and XUV or XUV and XUV pulses. The under developement attosecond sources will operate at a repetition rate of 100 kHz and 1 kHz, using high-order harmonic generation in noble gases confined in either isolated attosecond pulses or short trains of attosecond pulses. The XUV radiation will be available in different spectral ranges (from 17 eV up to 90 eV) selected using different noble gases and metallic filters. The produced pulses and pulse-trains offered to the users will be properly characterized with respect to pulse duration, spectrum, photon number, spatial coherence and brightness. Further details about ELI-ALPS facility and the overview of the GHHG beamlines will be discussed at the conference.

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High Density Laser Induced Thermal Energy for Water Desalination

U+1F512
*Loftia M. El Nadi1, *Magdy Omer, *Hussein Abdelmoniem , *Galila A. Mehena, *A.M. Aboulfotouh , *Khaled A. ElSayed,* A. I. Refaei, 1 Mohamed Ramadan, 2Mohamed Ezzat , 3Yasser ElBaz, 4Hisham Imam

Only 2.5% of all water in the world is fresh; even less than 0.1% is readily available for directhuman use. Water desalination proves to be a compelling necessity now and in the near future. Desalination techniques like multi-stage flash (MSF) or multi-effect distillation (MED) require heat for creating the steam which provides the fresh water. A handful of energy intensive techniques are currently used, mostly at industrial scale; however, Laser material heating energy can be used as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for water desalination purposes. Ultra intense laser sources are explored and a Terawatt laser system is found to be a potential candidate as a tremendous thermal energy source.

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Preparation of silver nanoparticles to improve the physical properties for textile material

U+1F512
Lotfia El Nadi, Ahmed M. Abdou, Mohamed A. Hafez, Mai Fayez Shahin

Silver nanoparticles have attracted much attention in antibacterial coatings, biological sensors, textiles, and biomedical devices because of their size-dependent properties. Pulsed laser ablation in liquids confine the movement of the resultant plasma plume which can greatly influence the kinetic properties. This causes distinctly different environments of the condensing phase formation from that of laser ablation of solids in vacuum or diluted gas. In this study, silver nanoparticles were prepared by two different techniques namely liquid phase pulsed laser ablation (LP-PLA) and chemical reduction. In the LP-PLA, IR and UV lasers types were used to ablate silver rods in distilled water. The IR laser was Nd:YAG with = 1064 nm, pulse duration = 6 ns, and 110 mJ laser energy. The UV type was nitrogen laser with = 337 nm, pulse duration = 15 ns, and 375 mJ laser energy. In the chemical reduction, silver sulphate, sodium borohydride, and tri-sodium citrate were used to prepare the silver nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis in order to analyze the final size and composition of nanoparticles. For sample prepared by Nd:YAG laser, the measured average size was found to be ~9.9 nm and sample prepared by chemical reduction showed average size of ~13.9 nm. The results show about spherical shape for samples prepared by Nd:YAG laser and chemical reduction while needle shape produced by the nitrogen laser. These silver nanoparticles will be applied to cotton fabrics for studying the dyeing behavior of the treated fabrics, such as color strength measurement and color fastness measurement.

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Synthesis of Nano CdS by pulsed laser ablation in liquid environment (PLAL)

U+1F512
Ayman M. Darwish, Wael H. Eisa, Ali A. Shabaka , Mohamed H. Talaat

A new method was developed to synthesize materials in nanoscale by using pulsed laser ablation in a liquid solution. Compared to the other synthetic methods, the advantages of this method are simplicity of the procedure and absence of chemical reagents in solution, which offers novel opportunities to solve the toxicity problems. This method can be carried by two ways; the first one is Top-Down technique appeared in publications in the last few decades while the other one is Bottom-Up technique appeared to be the first time in this paper. The both synthesized methods can be applied in all materials because of its ability to ablate almost all kinds of materials due to the ultra-high energy density and control over the growth process by manipulating the process parameters like Intensity, wavelength, etc.

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Simulation of Fusion Evaporation of Compound Nuclei Created in Ultra Intense Laser Interaction with Carbon Targets

U+1F512
*Loftia M. El Nadi1, *Magdy Omer, *Hussein Abdelmoniem , *Galila A. Mehena, *A.M. Aboulfotouh , *Khaled A. ElSayed,* A. I. Refaei, 1 Mohamed Ramadan, 2Mohamed Ezzat , 3Yasser ElBaz, 4Hisham Imam

Compound nucleus creation in Ultra Intense Laser UIL interaction with materials could be possible through Fusion-of the target nuclei with the accelerated target charged ion in the laser field. The residual radioactive nuclei in the remaining target material could well be due to evaporation of protons, neutrons, deuterons etc. from the created compound nucleus. We here with report simulation of compound nucleus formation followed by particle evaporation applying Monto Calro code PACE-4 to estimate the possible Fusion cross-section for carbon nuclei forming excited Mg24 compound nucleus. The results shown in Figure 1 indicates the highest cross section of such possibility peaking at carbon ions projectile energy ≈ 30 MeV (2.5 MeV/ A ). The cross sections for production of neutron deficient nuclei resulting from the Fusion-Evaporation process of C12 + C12 are also estimated. The simulation results help greatly in choosing the power of the UIL as well as the design of the experimental set up to be applied in verifying the Fusion-Evaporation Phenomena. FIGURE 1.1: Simple schematic of the four stages of inertial confinement fusion via “hot spot” ignition. Stage 1: Energy is delivered to the surface of a tiny hollow sphere (a few millimeters in diameter) of fusion fuel (the target). The blue arrows represent the driver energy delivered to the target-this is the laser light, x-ray radiation or particle beams that heat the outer yellow shell. Stage 2: Orange arrows indicate the ablation of the outer shell that pushes the inner shell towards the center. The compression of the fusion fuel to very high density increases the potential fusion reaction rate. Stage 3: The central low-density region, comprising a small percentage of the fuel, is heated to fusion temperatures. The light blue arrows represent the energy transported to the center to heat the hot spot. This initiates the fusion burn. Stage 4: An outwardly propagating fusion burn wave triggers the fusion of a significant fraction of the remaining fuel during the brief period before the pellet explodes/disassembles. Steady power production is achieved through rapid, repetitive fusion micro-explosions of this kind This image obtained from [1]

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Spectroscopic and thermal properties of PVK/AgNPs nanocomposites prepared by laser ablation

U+1F512
F. H. Abd El-kader , N. A. Hakeem , I. S. Elashmawi , A. A. Menazea

Nanocomposites of Poly (n-vinylcarbazole) PVK/Ag nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation of a silver plate in aqueous solution of chlorobenzene. The influences of laser parameters such as; time of irradiation, source power and wavelength (photon energy) on Spectroscopic, morphological and thermal properties have been investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), respectively. From IR data there is a complexation between AgNPs and PVK matrix. SEM reveals that the presence of AgNPs leads to changes in the surface morphology. Kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibb’s free energy are evaluated from TG data using Coat’s - Redfern model.

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